1904 Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers

The complete document is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to a particular section:

Prefaratory Memorandum (page v)
Regulations (1)
Appendices (13)

See also

The Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers for 1903, 1905 and 1906; and

Circular 523 (March 1905): Additional Grants on Account of Pupil Teachers

The text of the 1904 Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 19 March 2024.


Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers
Board of Education (1904)

London: His Majesty's Stationery Office 1904
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

BOARD OF EDUCATION


REGULATIONS

FOR THE

INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING

OF

PUPIL-TEACHERS


(From 1st August 1904 to 31st July 1905)


Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty




LONDON:
PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
BY WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED,
FETTER LANE, E.C.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from
EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, EAST HARDING STREET, FLEET STREET, E.C., and
32 ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or
OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH; or
E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1904

[Cd. 2140.]


[page iii]

CONTENTS

page
PREFATORY MEMORANDUMv

REGULATIONS FOR THE INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING OF PUPIL TEACHERS
1
I Conditions under which Pupil-Teachers may be employed in Public Elementary Schools1
II Recognition of Centres for the instruction of Pupil-Teachers5
III Instruction in Preparatory Classes of boys and girls intending to become Pupil-Teachers9
IV Grants for Centres and Preparatory Classes10
V Instruction of Pupil-Teachers otherwise than in Centres11
VI General Provisions as to Grants for Preparatory Classes and for the instruction of Pupil-Teachers12

APPENDlCES:
A Examinations qualifying for admission of Pupil Teachers13
B Examinations qualifying for admission to a Training College for a Two Years' Course14
C Syllabus for the Examination of Candidates for Admission as Pupil Teachers, 190515
D Regulations and Syllabus for the King's Scholarship Examination, 190519
E Rules for the keeping of accounts in Pupil-Teacher Centres not provided by Local Education Authorities28
F Circulars relating to Pupil-Teachers30


[page v]

REGULATIONS FOR THE INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING OF PUPIL-TEACHERS

PREFATORY MEMORANDUM

The following revised Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers will come into operation on the 1st of August, 1904. Certain modifications which the experience of the past year has shown to be desirable have been introduced; and the re-arrangement of the Code of Regulations for Public Elementary Schools has made it possible to exhibit in a clearer form the statement of the conditions under which Pupil-Teachers will be admitted.

Pupil-Teachers were admitted from 1st January last, either under the provisions of the Code for 1903, or under Articles 2 to 10 of the Pupil-Teacher Regulations for 1903. From the 1st of August next, the conditions which govern the admission of all Pupil-Teachers will be found in Articles 2 to 10 of these Regulations. In two respects, however, some of the changes contemplated by the Regulations may be deferred until a later date:

(1) Article 5(a) states that Pupil-Teachers must, except as hereinafter provided, be not less than 16 years of age at the date of their admission. It has, however, been represented to the Board that it will be difficult to comply with this requirement in certain areas, partly because there are not at present facilities for intending Pupil-Teachers to receive full-time instruction between the ages of 15 and 16; and partly because it may at present be difficult in some Public Elementary Schools to replace by other teachers the Pupil-Teachers whose admission would thus be deferred for a year. In view of this, the Board will be prepared, where it is shown to their satisfaction that the circumstances of any area require exceptional treatment, to postpone until the 1st


[page vi]

of August, 1906, the date at which Article 5(a) will come into operation as regards that area, and to allow Candidates to be admitted as Pupil-Teachers for an engagement of three years from any earlier 1st of August or 1st of January.

(2) In order to secure more time in which the Pupil-Teacher may continue his own education, and receive instruction at a Centre or elsewhere, it is required by Article 7(a) that no Pupil-Teacher shall be employed in any Public Elementary School for more than half the total number of meetings of the school. It is, however, provided in Article 7(b) that this regulation need not become operative until the 1st of August, 1905, except by the agreement of all parties concerned. Where it is not adopted, Pupil-Teachers may continue until that date to be employed for the number of hours allowed by the Code for 1903.

It has already been announced that from the 1st of August, 1904, the rate of Grant payable on account of Pupil-Teachers instructed in Centres will be increased from 3 to 6; and the rate of Grant payable for pupils in Preparatory Classes from 2 to 4. In addition to this, the Board propose, in accordance with the intention expressed in Article 36 of last year's Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers, to make a further increase in the total Grant paid for the instruction of Pupil-Teachers, in commutation of the special Grants, which have hitherto been payable under the Regulations of the Board for Science and Art Classes and for Evening Schools, and which will be discontinued after the 31st of July, 1904. The Grants payable under these Regulations in respect of periods beginning with the 1st of August, 1904, will therefore be a Grant of 7 for Pupil-Teachers instructed in recognised Centres under Article 24; a Grant of 4 for pupils instructed in Preparatory Classes under Article 25; and a Grant of 2 10s. for Pupil-Teachers not instructed in recognised Centres, but instructed in accordance with arrangements accepted under Article 28. It will be observed, however, that the Grant of 7 will not be payable on account of any Pupil Teacher, whether


[page vii]

instructed in a Centre or not, unless his engagement is fully subject to the new Regulations: that is to say, where the Pupil-Teacher is employed in the Elementary School for more than half the total number of meetings in the year, the Grant payable for him will be at the rate of 2 10s.; and where the Pupil-Teacher is admitted for an engagement of three years, the Grant payable for him in the first year of his engagement will be at the rate of 2 10s., whether he is employed in the Elementary School for more than half time or not.

It may be convenient here to call attention to the following further alterations which have been introduced into the new edition of the Regulations.

The Regulations for last year stated that Pupil Teachers engaged under the new conditions must be employed for not more than 200 meetings annually. It has been represented to the Board that this limitation of the number of meetings might create difficulties in the organisation of the work of the Elementary School; and Pupil-Teachers may therefore in future be employed for not more than half the total number of meetings of the school during the Pupil-Teacher year, if that number is greater than 400. The Board, however, wish to impress upon Local Authorities and managers that the attendance at the Centre and the Elementary School together should be so arranged as to secure that every Pupil-Teacher should have a half-holiday weekly, in addition to Saturday afternoon.

It will not, in future, be required that the specific Clauses set out in previous Codes should be included in the agreements under which Pupil-Teachers are engaged. Such agreements, however, must be in accordance with Article 6 of the Regulations; and one of the conditions laid down by this Article is that the Pupil-Teacher or his parent shall have a right of choosing between different Centres when more than one is available, analogous to the right possessed by a parent of choosing between different Elementary Schools.


[page viii]

Certain Local Authorities have expressed a preference for the 1st of January as the date for admission of Pupil-Teachers. It will therefore be arranged that, where special reason is shown, the engagement of any Pupil-Teacher, or the year of any Pupil-Teacher Centre, may begin on the 1st of January.

When Pupil-Teachers are employed for only half the time during which the Elementary School is open, it will generally be difficult for them to form an effective part of the school staff, except when two are employed together. Some alteration as to the number of Pupil-Teachers allowed in each department is therefore necessary, and the Board propose in future to regard four Pupil-Teachers as the normal number for each department containing any considerable number of children. It will, however, be made a condition of the recognition of any Pupil-Teachers at all in a school, that the school should be approved as suitable for the purpose, and for the numbers which it is proposed to allot to the school; and where a school is specially adapted for the purpose of training Pupil-Teachers in the practice of teaching the normal number may be exceeded.

The Hints on the Organisation of the Instruction of Pupil-Teachers which were issued with Circular 494, are reprinted in Appendix F, page 30, in the hope that Local Authorities and Managers may find useful suggestions for the development of this important branch of public education. The Board recognise that the conditions which must be taken into account will differ widely in different localities, and they have endeavoured to frame their regulations in such a way as to leave to the various Local Education Authorities and Managers a wide liberty to try experiments as to the best methods of selecting, training, and instructing Pupil-Teachers.

ROBERT L. MORANT.
July 5th, 1904.


[page 1]

Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers

(From 1st August 1904 to 31st July 1905)

CHAPTER I

Conditions under which Pupil-Teachers may be Employed in Public Elementary Schools

1. Boys and girls who are receiving (a) Training in teaching in a Public Elementary School, together with (b) Instruction approved by the Board under these Regulations, may be recognised as Pupil-Teachers, subject to the conditions hereafter specified.

2. Candidates for admission as Pupil-Teachers must have passed either -

(a) One of the Examinations specified in Appendix A, or

(b) An Admission Examination held by the Board in accordance with the Syllabus given in Appendix C, or

(c) An Examination conducted by the Local Education Authority or by the Managers of a Pupil-Teacher Centre and approved by the Board as providing adequate tests of the fitness of the Candidates for the subsequent education and training of a Pupil-Teacher.

The Admission Examination of the Board will as a rule be held immediately before or after Easter on a day of which notice will be given by the Board. The Inspector will arrange with the Local Education Authority for Elementary Education as to the hour and places at which the Admission Examination shall be held. In 1905 the Examination will be held on the 15th of April.


[page 2]

3. Candidates for admission as Pupil-Teachers must be approved by the Board, must be suitable in respect of character, health and freedom from personal defects, and must have been vaccinated.

N.B. It is desirable that no candidate should be proposed for admission as a Pupil-Teacher unless it can reasonably be expected that be will be able eventually to satisfy the Board as to his physical capacity in the manner prescribed by the Elementary School Teachers' Superannuation Rules, 1899.
4. The date of admission of Pupil-Teachers will be 1st August, or, with the special consent of the Board, 1st January. The names of Candidates proposed for admission must be submitted to the Board not later than 1st July or 1st December as the case may be.

5. (a) Pupil-Teachers must, except as hereafter provided, be not less than 16 years of age at the date of their admission.

(b) The length of the engagement of a Pupil-Teacher will normally be two years, but an engagement of one year will be permitted, provided that the end of the reduced term of service will fall beyond the completion of the Pupil-Teacher's 18th year and that the Board are satisfied that the Candidate has shown evidence of special attainments. If the final examination (see Articles 13 and 28 (a)) is deferred, the engagement may be extended for not more than a year.

(c) In schools in Rural Districts Candidates between the ages of 15 and 16 may, with the special consent of the Board, be admitted for an engagement of three years.

(d) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Board that the circumstances of any area require exceptional treatment, they will be prepared, as regards that area, to postpone until 1st August, 1906, the date at which Article 5(a) will come into operation, and to allow Candidates to be admitted as Pupil-Teachers for engagements of three years from August 1st, 1904, or from January 1st or August 1st, 1905, or from January 1st, 1906. No Candidate, however, who is over 16 will in any case be admitted for an engagement of three years from any later date than 1st January, 1905.


[page 3]

6. (a) All Pupil-Teachers must be employed under written agreements, except that a Pupil-Teacher appointed by a Local Authority may be employed under a minute of the Authority.

(b) Either the Local Education Authority or the Managers of the Public Elementary School in which the Pupil-Teacher is employed must undertake by such agreement or minute that the Pupil-Teacher shall be provided with instruction in accordance with Articles 11 to 19 or Article 28(a) of these Regulations, during the period of the engagement, but the agreement or minute must not bind the Pupil-Teacher to receive such instruction at any particular Centre if his parent prefers that it shall be given to him at some other available Centre recognised or eligible for recognition under Article 11 of these Regulations.

(c) The agreement or minute must not require that the Pupil-Teacher shall perform any duties unconnected with the ordinary work of the Public Elementary School in which he is employed, except so far as may be necessary to ensure that he shall receive instruction in accordance with these Regulations.

7. (a) Pupil-Teachers must, except as hereinafter provided, be employed and receive training in the art of teaching at a Public Elementary School during not less than 100 meetings and not more than 200 meetings during the Pupil-Teacher year (or not more than half the total number of meetings of the school during that year if that number is greater than 400).

(b) Article 7 (a) need not be adopted as regards any Pupil-Teacher before 1st August, 1905, but it may be adopted from an earlier date by the agreement of all parties concerned. Pupil-Teachers who are not employed in accordance with Article 7(a) must serve in school for not more than 5 hours on any day nor more than 20 hours in any one week.

8. (a) No Pupil-Teacher may be employed in any school which is not approved by an Inspector of the


[page 4]

Board as suitable for the purpose of training Pupil-Teachers.

(b) Not more than four Pupil-Teachers will as a rule be recognised by the Board in any department, but a larger number recommended by the Inspector may be recognised in any case where the Board are satisfied that the school is specially adapted for the purpose of training Pupil-Teachers. Pupil-Teachers, whose final examination has been deferred and whose engagements have consequently been extended in accordance with Article 5(b), will not be reckoned for the purpose of this Article.

(c) Pupil-Teachers must be trained under the supervision of the Head Teacher of the school in which they are employed, and the Head Teacher must keep registers showing the time spent by each Pupil-Teacher in this training and full records of its nature.

9. Pupil-Teachers must, as a rule, be of the same sex as the Head Teacher of the school in which they are employed. Girls are not as a rule recognised as Pupil-Teachers in a boys' school nor boys in a girls' or infants' school.

10. The recognition of a Pupil-Teacher may be withdrawn at any time by the Board if any of the conditions on which he was admitted cease to be fulfilled, or if the Board are satisfied that he is not receiving proper instruction, or is not being properly supervised during his service in the Public Elementary SchooL



[page 5]

CHAPTER II

Recognition of Centres for the Instruction of Pupil-Teachers

11. (a) Where possible, the instruction of Pupil-Teachers must be given in a Pupil-Teacher Centre recognised by the Board under these Regulations. A Centre may be attached to a Secondary School, or may, with the special consent of the Board, be attached to a Higher Elementary School, or be separately established.

(b) To obtain recognition by the Board, a Centre must be provided either by the Council of a County, County Borough, Borough, or Urban District, or by a responsible body of Governors or Managers. Some person must be appointed to act as Correspondent with the Board, who must not be a paid teacher of a Centre or of a Public Elementary School or of a Secondary School under the Board of Education. Where the Education Act, 1902, is not in operation, a School Board may be recognised as the Managers of a Centre maintained by them under the provisions of the Education Act, 1901, or of any Act renewing or extending those provisions.

N.B. A fresh application to the Board must be made before Central Classes recognised under Article 36 of the Code for Public Elementary Schools for 1903 or any earlier year can be recognised as a Centre under this Article.
12. A Centre must be open for at least five meetings each week during thirty-six or more weeks in the year, or for such less number of weeks as may be approved by the Board in cases where more than five meetings are held in each week. The meetings must be held after 7.30 a.m. and before 6 p.m., and each must be of not less than two hours' duration. The Pupil-Teachers must attend with due regularity.

13. (a) The curriculum of the Centre must include an approved course or courses of general instruction, leading up to a final examination, which may be either the King's Scholarship Examination or some other examina-


[page 6]

tion qualifying for admission to a Training College for a two years' course of training (see Appendix B). No Pupil-Teacher will be admitted to the King's Scholarship Examination before the last year of his engagement.

N.B. The Regulations and Syllabus for the King's Scholarship Examination for 1905 are printed as Appendix D to these Regulations. Copies of them, or of the Regulations and Syllabus for 1904, may be obtained on application to the Secretary, Board of Education, Whitehall, London, S. W. The Examination will be held in 1904 on December 13th and following days, and in 1905 on December 12th and following days. It is possible that an alteration may be made in the future as to the period of the year in which the King's Scholarship Examination will be held.
(b) The curriculum must always include reading and recitation (including voice production), drawing, natural science, music, physical exercises, and, in the case of girls, needlework. Where the Centre is attached to a Secondary School or a Higher Elementary School, proper provision must be made for the correlation of the instruction.

(c) A timetable and a syllabus must be submitted for the approval of the Board. A copy of the timetable must be conspicuously exhibited in the Centre, and must not be permanently modified without due notice to the Inspector.

(d) Registers showing the attendances of all Pupil-Teachers for instruction must be kept at the Centre in a manner approved by the Board. Systematic records of the conduct and progress of each Pupil-Teacher must also be kept.

14. (a) The Teaching Staff of the Centre must be approved by the Board and must be sufficient in numbers and qualification to provide for each Pupil-Teacher adequate instruction in each subject of the approved curriculum.

(b) In the case of a Centre attended entirely by girls, the Head Teacher and at least one-half of the Permanent Staff must be women, and in the case of a Centre attended mainly by girls, at least one-half of the Permanent Staff, other than the Headmaster or Head-


[page 7]

mistress, must be women; but these rules will not be enforced in such a way as to cause hardship in the case of any Teacher who is already employed in Central Classes at the date when such Classes obtain recognition as a Centre.

(c) The Teachers may not undertake any other duties which would interfere with the efficient discharge of their duties in the Centre.

15. (a) The Centre must be efficient: must not compete unduly with any other Centre, or with a neighbouring school providing higher instruction; and, from its character and financial position, must be eligible to receive aid from public funds.

(b) The Centre must not be conducted for private profit or farmed out to the Head Teacher, and the scale of salary of the Teaching Staff must not be subject to variation according to the amount of grant received.

(c) The fees charged in the Centre must be approved by the Board, and no charge other than the fees may be made to students.

(d) A full account of the income and expenditure of the Centre must be furnished annually.

N.B. Rules for the keeping of accounts in Centres not provided by Local Education Authorities are contained in Appendix E of these Regulations.
16. The premises of the Centre must be sanitary, convenient for teaching purposes, adapted to the circumstances of the Centre and provided with adequate equipment and appliances for the approved course of instruction.

17. (a) The year of the Centre will ordinarily be held to begin on 1st August and end on 31st July. On special application, however, the Board will be prepared to recognise a year beginning on 1st January and ending on 31st December.

(b) The names of Pupil Teachers who will be instructed in the Centre in any year, must, as a rule, be notified to the Board a month before the beginning of the year.


[page 8]

18. (a) A Centre must be open at all times to the inspection of the Board.

(b) Notice must be sent to the Inspector as soon as is possible in each case of every date on which the Centre will be closed or its ordinary work suspended.

19. (a) A scholar attending under these Regulations as a day or evening scholar at a Centre shall not be required, as a condition of being admitted into or remaining in the Centre, to attend or abstain from attending any Sunday school, place of religious worship, religious observance, or instruction in religious subjects in the Centre or elsewhere, and

(b) The times for religious worship or for any lesson on a religious subject shall be conveniently arranged for the purpose of allowing the withdrawal of any such scholar therefrom.





[page 9]

CHAPTER III

Instruction in Preparatory Classes of boys and girls intending to become Pupil-Teachers

20. (a) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Board that no other facilities exist for the instruction after the age of 14 of boys or girls intending to become Pupil-Teachers, Preparatory Classes attached to a Pupil-Teacher Centre or to Central Classes conducted in accordance with arrangements accepted under Article 28 may be recognised by the Board.

(b) Preparatory Classes must be open for at least ten meetings each week of not less than two hours each, held after 7.30 a.m. and before 6.0 p.m., during 36 or more weeks in the year, and must provide a suitable course of instruction during either one or two years for scholars who are intending to become Pupil-Teachers.

N.B. It will not be required, in the case of Preparatory Classes attached to a Pupil-Teacher Centre, that the two institutions should be carried on in the same premises or under the same management, but the Board must be satisfied that the instruction is properly co-ordinated, and that arrangements are made by which Pupils from the Preparatory Classes will pass in the ordinary course to the Centre.
21. Pupils receiving instruction in a Preparatory Class may not serve in any capacity in a Public Elementary SchooL

22. (a) In order to be admitted to Preparatory Classes, candidates must be suitable in respect of health, character, and freedom from personal defects.

(b) Candidates must be between the ages of 14 and 16 at the date of their admission to Preparatory Classes, and their names must as a rule be notified to the Board not less than a month before the beginning of the year. A declaration must be made on their behalf that they enter the Preparatory Class with the intention of eventually becoming Pupil-Teachers, and the Board must be satisfied of their fitness to be admitted and to profit by the instruction given.

23. In other respects the provisions of Articles 11 to 19 apply to Preparatory Classes as well as to Pupil-Teacher Centres.


[page 10]

CHAPTER IV

Grants for Centres and Preparatory Classes

24. (a) A grant of 7 will be paid on account of each Pupil-Teacher employed in a Public Elementary School under Articles 2 to 10 (including Article 7(a) of these Regulations, who has received instruction in a Centre satisfying the conditions of Articles 11 to 19 for not less than 150 meetings in the year, and during that year has been employed and received training in the art of teaching at a Public Elementary School during not less than 100 meetings and not more than 200 meetings (or not more than half the total number of meetings of the school in the Pupil-Teacher Year if that number is greater than 400).

(b) No grant will be paid under this Article for any Pupil-Teacher who was under 16 years of age at the beginning of the period in respect of which the grant is claimed, and no grant will be paid under this Article for any Pupil-Teacher for more than two years, whatever the total length of his engagement may be (see Article 28 (d).)

25. A grant of 4 will be paid for each Pupil who has made not less than 250 attendances during the year in a Preparatory Class satisfying the conditions of Articles 20 to 23. No grant will be paid under this Article for any Pupil for more than two years.

26. If the Board are satisfied that any of the conditions on which a grant is payable is not fulfilled, or that, in the case of Preparatory Classes, the proportion of Pupils taught in those classes in previous years who have become Pupil-Teachers is unduly small, they may withhold the grant in any year, or, if they think fit, pay the grant with or without a deduction, giving a warning that a grant will not again be paid under similar circumstances.

27. The grant under Articles 24 and 25 will be paid annually to the Council or Managers by whom the Centre or Preparatory Class is conducted. The grants are intended to supplement and not to supersede local efforts, and must be expended to the satisfaction of the Board.


[page 11]

CHAPTER V

Instruction of Pupil-Teachers otherwise than in Centres

28. (a) Where Pupil-Teachers are not employed in accordance with Article 7(a) of these Regulations, or where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Board that it is impossible to provide for the instruction of a Pupil-Teacher employed in accordance with Article 7(a) in a Centre satisfying the conditions laid down in Articles 11 to 19 and Article 24, the Board may accept instruction in Central Classes or such other arrangements for instruction as appear to them to be the best possible under the circumstances. Registers showing the time spent by each Pupil-Teacher under instruction and records of its nature must be kept. The instruction must be of such a character as to lead up to a final examination, which may be either the King's Scholarship Examination, or some other examination qualifying for admission to a Training College for a two years' course of Training (see Appendix B).

(b) For every Pupil-Teacher satisfactorily instructed under this Article a grant of 2 10s. annually will be paid to the Local Education Authority responsible for maintaining the Elementary School in which the Pupil-Teacher is employed at the end of the year for which the grant is paid, or, where the Education Act, 1902, is not yet in operation, to the Managers of that Elementary School.

(c) Grants will not be paid for any Pupil-Teacher under this Article for a longer period than the number of years for which the Pupil-Teacher was originally admitted.

(d) When a Pupil-Teacher is admitted for an engagement of three years under Article 5(c) or 5(d), the grant on account of the first year of his engagement will be paid under this Article and not under Article 24, even if he is instructed in a Centre recognised under Article 11.

(e) After the 1st August, 1905, no arrangements will be accepted under this Article unless they provide for at least 300 hours annually to be spent by the Pupil-Teacher under instruction or in private study. The time allotted to such instruction or private study must as a rule be after 7.30 a.m. and before 6 p.m.


[page 12]

CHAPTER VI

General Provisions as to Grants for Preparatory Classes and for the Instruction of Pupil Teachers

29. No grants will be made under these Regulations for any boy or girl on whose account a grant under any other Regulations (with the exception of a grant in aid of a Local Science and Art Scholarship) is paid by the Board in respect of the same period.

N.B. The Regulations with regard to Science and Art Scholarships are printed as Appendix C to the Regulations for Secondary Schools. Pupil-teachers are not eligible for such Scholarships.
30. Grants under these Regulations will, in the ordinary course, be paid for the year ending 31st July or the year ending 31st December. But in the case of a Pupil Teacher admitted from the 1st January of any year the Board may pay a proportionate grant under Art. 24 or Art. 28 for the five months immediately preceding the termination of his original engagement.

31. Grants in respect of Pupil-Teachers admitted from the 1st January, 1900, or from any earlier date, will be paid on the conditions stated in Article 102 of the Code for 1902, and will be paid either to the Local Education Authority for Elementary Education, or, where the Education Act, 1902, is not yet in operation, to the Managers of the Public Elementary School in which the Pupil-Teacher is engaged.

32. Grants which fall due in respect of periods ending before the 1st of August, 1904, will be paid under the Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers, 1903.

33. The Board may, when the incidence of the appointed day under the Education Act, 1902, or the Education (London) Act, 1903, renders it necessary, apportion any grant payable under these Regulations, including grants payable under the two preceding Articles, between the Local Education Authority for Elementary Education and the persons who were


[page 13]

Managers of the School in which the Pupil-Teacher was engaged immediately before the appointed day.

34. The total period in respect of which grants are paid for any Pupil-Teacher, including any grants paid under the Codes of 1903 or previous years, will not exceed by more than one month the number of years for which the Pupil-Teacher was originally admitted.

These Regulations will come into force on 1st August, 1904; and except as otherwise provided the Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil-Teachers for 1903 [Cd. 1666] will cease to be operative on that date.

ROBERT L. MORANT.
July 5th, 1904.

APPENDIX A

LIST OF EXAMINATIONS RECOGNISED BY THE BOARD UNDER ARTICLE 2(A) AS QUALIFYING CANDIDATES FOR ADMISSION AS PUPIL-TEACHERS

1. The Oxford Local Examination for Junior Students.

2. The Cambridge Local Examination for Junior Students.

3. The Lower Certificate of the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board.

4. The Examination for Second Class Certificates of the College of Preceptors.

5. The Junior Certificate Examination of the Central Welsh Board.

6. Any corresponding or higher Examination approved for the purpose by the Board.


[page 14]

APPENDIX B

LIST OF EXAMINATIONS RECOGNISED BY THE BOARD AS QUALIFYING FOR ADMISSION TO A TRAINING COLLEGE FOR A TWO YEARS' COURSE OF TRAINING

1. The King's Scholarship Examination of the Board of Education, provided that a place is obtained in the first or second class.

2. The Senior Local Examination of the University of Oxford, provided that the Candidate obtains a place in the pass list and satisfies the Examiners in

(a) Arithmetic and English Language and Literature; in
(b) either History or Geography; and in
(c) either Mathematics, or Biology, or Chemistry or Physics.
3. The Senior Local Examination of the University of Cambridge, provided that the Candidate obtains a place in the pass list and satisfies the examiners in
(a) English Literature and Literature (Section II ); in
(b) History and Geography (Section III ); and in
(c) either Mathematics (Section IX), or 111 Science (Section X, or XI, or XII.)
4. The London University Matriculation Examination or the School-Leaving Certificate Examination.

5. The Victoria University Preliminary Examination, or the Matriculation Examination conducted by the Joint Board representing the Universities of Manchester, Liverpool, and Yorkshire.

6. The Birmingham University Matriculation Examination.

7. The University of Wales Matriculation Examination, if the Candidate passes in all five subjects at one Examination.

8. The Royal University of Ireland Matriculation Examination.

9. The School-leaving Certificate Examination of the University of Ireland.

10. The Higher Certificate of the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board, provided that the Candidate satisfies the Examiners in

(a) One subject from Group I, i.e., a Language; in
(b) One subject from Group II, i.e. Elementary or Additional Mathematics; in
(c) One subject from Group III (English, etc.) not being Scripture; and in
(d) One other subject not being Scripture.
11. The Senior Certificate Examination of the Central Welsh Board, if the Certificate is obtained in such and so many subjects in combination as are recognised by the University of Wales as equivalent to the Matriculation Examination of the University.

12. The Durham University Senior Local Examination, provided that the Candidate satisfies the Examiners in

(i) One Foreign Language; and in
(ii) At least two subjects under Group B, except (a) and (b) in combination.
13. Any corresponding or higher examination approved for the purpose by the Board.


[page 15]

APPENDIX C

SYLLABUS FOR THE EXAMINATION OF CANDIDATES FOR ADMISSION AS PUPIL TEACHERS, 1905

1. SYLLABUS FOR CANDIDATES FOR AN ENGAGEMENT OF TWO YEARS

READING

To read a passage from a prose work selected by the Inspector.

RECITATION

To recite 100 lines from a poem by some standard English author.

In Welsh districts a poem by a standard Welsh author may be substituted.

ENGLISH

The elements of English Grammar, including the analysis of sentences and parsing. The first elements of etymology. Paraphrase of a short passage not previously seen by the candidate. A short essay on a given subject.

Some alternative sentences in Welsh will be set for parsing and analysis.

HISTORY

Outlines of English History from the Roman Invasion to 1603.

Some alternative questions will be set on Welsh History.

GEOGRAPHY

General knowledge of the Geography of Europe and Asia.

ARITHMETIC

Excluding Cube Root, Scales of Notation, Foreign Exchanges, True Discount, Troy Weight and Apothecaries Weight. Candidates must understand the principles of the Metric System.

ALGEBRA (For Boys only)

Notation, easy examples in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. Simple equations with one unknown, and problems leading up to such equations.

GEOMETRY. (For Boys only)

Candidates may be examined either (A) in Euclid or (B) on the Syllabus set forth below. They cannot, however, be examined both on this Syllabus and in Euclid.

A. Euclid: Book I with simple Geometrical exercises.

B. (Syllabus for Candidates who do not take Euclid).


[page 16]

Every candidate taking this syllabus must be provided with a ruler graduated in inches and tenths of an inch, and in centimetres and millimetres, a small set square, compasses furnished with a hard pencil point, a protractor and a hard pencil.

Figures should be drawn accurately with a hard pencil.

Questions may be set in which the use of the set square or of the protractor is forbidden. Any proof of a Proposition will be accepted which appears to the examiner to form part of a logical order of treatment of the subject. In the proof of theorems and in deductions from them, the use of hypothetical constructions is permitted.

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY

The following constructions and easy extensions of them -

Bisection of angles and of straight lines.
Construction of perpendiculars to straight lines.
Simple cases of the construction from sufficient data of triangles and of quadrilaterals.
Construction of parallels to a given straight line.
Construction of angles equal to a given angle.
Division of straight lines into a given number of equal parts.
Candidates will be expected to be acquainted with the forms of the cube, the rectangular block, the sphere, the cylinder, and the cone.

THEORETICAL GEOMETRY

The substance of the theorems contained in Euclid Book I, Propositions 4-6, 8, 13-16, 18, 19, 26-30, 32-41, 43.

Questions upon these theorems, easy deductions from them, and arithmetical illustrations will be included.

NEEDLEWORK (for girls only)

(1) A woman's cooking apron or a woman's gored flannel petticoat.
(2) Patches in calico, print and flannel.
(3) Paper patterns of a cooking apron and a gored flannel petticoat drawn to scale; the same garments (half size) cut out in paper and made up by tacking.

Material to be provided for the Collective Examination

1 piece of holland 9" x 9"; 1 piece of flannel 9" x 9".
1 piece of calico 6" x 6"; 1 piece of print 6" x 6".
1 sheet of sectional paper; 1 sheet of cutting out paper; 1 piece of tape 6"; 1 unpierced button. Suitable sewing needles and cotton.

MUSIC (optional)

Staff Notation. All the major scales and signatures. Dotted notes. Tied notes. Semi quavers, Triplets, 3/8, 6/8 and 9/8 time.

Tonic Sol-fa Notation. First removes of key. Bridge notes. Six and nine pulse measure. Quarter pulse notes and rests. Thirds of a pulse.

ELEMENTARY SCIENCE (optional)

PHYSICS

Measurement of straight and curved lines, elementary geometrical notions, the use of scale and instruments. Metric and British Units. Measurement of area, use of squared paper. Measurement of volume; use of burette, pipette, graduated cylinder.


[page 17]

Simple Lever balanced about any point.
Centre of Gravity of symmetrical bodies, treated experimentally only.
The Balance.
Simple methods of finding the weight of 1 c.c. of different solids and liquids. Determination of density. The apparent weight of solids in liquids.
The balancing of different liquids in tubes.
The formation and reading of a simple barometer.
Physical effects of heat on different substances.
The Thermometer. Maximum density of water.
Distillation of water. Melting and boiling points.

CHEMISTRY

The examination of common metals and common household substances, such as salt, starch, sugar, soda, soap, as to their appearance, solubility, behaviour on heating, etc.

Change in weight when substances are heated and the examination of their products.

Study of Air. Iron left to rust in air, effect on weight. Iron left in ordinary, and in distilled water. Iron and phosphorus left to rust in air enclosed over water. Alteration in the volume of the air, examination of residual air. Contrasted effect of air and nitrogen on phosphorus, copper, and magnesium.

Analogy between burning and rusting.

Formation of oxides of lead. The getting of oxygen from red lead, mercuric oxide, and potassium chlorate. Examination of the gas, and of the products formed by burning various substances in it.

Easy quantitative experiment on the volume of oxygen produced by a weighed quantity of potassium chlorate.

Elementary notion of acids and alkalies.

Examination and preparation of sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids. The action of these on some of the common metals.

Hydrogen. Preparation and properties. Examination of the liquid formed when the gas is burned.

The action of heated iron on steam, and of sodium on water.

The volume of hydrogen evolved by the action of acids on certain metals.

2. SYLLABUS FOR CANDIDATES WHOSE ADMISSION IS DESIRED FOR AN ENGAGEMENT OF THREE YEARS UNDER ARTICLE 5(c) OR 5(d)

READING

To read a passage from a prose work selected by the Inspector.

RECITATION

To recite 70 lines from a poem by some standard English author.

In Welsh districts a poem by a standard Welsh author may be substituted.


[page 18]

ENGLISH

The elements of English Grammar, including the analysis of easy sentences and parsing. A short essay on a given subject.

Some alternative sentences in Welsh will be set for parsing and analysis.

HISTORY

Outlines of English History from the Roman Invasion to 1485.

Some alternative questions will be set on Welsh History.

GEOGRAPHY

Outlines of physical and political Geography of the World with fuller knowledge of the British Isles.

Some alternative questions will be set on Welsh Geography.

ARITHMETIC

Excluding Stocks, Compound Interest, Cube Root, Scales of Notation, Foreign Exchanges, True Discount, Troy Weight and Apothecaries Weight. Candidates must understand the principles of the Metric System.

NEEDLEWORK (for girls only)

(1) A woman's chemise or a child's pinafore.
(2) Thin places and holes darned on stocking web material.
(3) Paper patterns of a chemise and a pinafore drawn to scale, the same garments (full size) cut out in paper and made up by tacking.

Material to be provided for the Collective Examination

1 piece of calico 9" x 9"; 1 piece of print 9" x 9".
1 piece of stocking web 4" x 4".
1 sheet of sectional paper; 1 sheet of ruled cutting out paper; 1 piece of tape 3" long; 1 unpierced button. Suitable sewing and darning needles and cotton.

MUSIC (optional)

Staff Notation. Notes, their shape and relative value. The treble and bass staves. The scales of C, G, and F. major. Intervals found in the major scale. Minims, crotchets, quavers, and equivalent rests, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 2/2, 3/2, 4/2 time.

Tonic Sol-fa Notation. The common major scale, its structure and intervals. The standard scale of pitch. Mental effects, and how they are modified. Accent. Two, three, and four pulse measure. Whole pulse notes, half pulse notes, and continuations, and rests of the same value.


[page 19]

APPENDIX D

REGULATIONS AND SYLLABUS FOR THE KING'S SCHOLARSHIP EXAMINATION, 1905

REGULATIONS

1. The Board hold an annual examination called the "King's Scholarship Examination" for candidates desiring to be recognised (1) as Uncertificated Teachers, or (2) as Students in a Training College, should the authorities of a Training College propose their admission (see Rule 5 below).

The examination will be held at the Training Colleges and at such other places as may be necessary.

In 1905 it will be held on-December 12th and the following days, Candidates are admitted to the examination under the conditions set out in the following Rules.

Full Regulations and Syllabuses may be obtained on application to the Secretary, Board of Education, Whitehall, London, S.W.

Arrangements will be made for a special examination in the Summer of Blind Candidates proposing to enter a recognised Training College for the Blind.

2. The names of candidates for examination in 1905 must be notified to the Board of Education, Whitehall, London, S.W., before October 1st, 1905. It will be necessary to enforce this Rule strictly.

3. A candidate must be either a Pupil Teacher entering for the final examination (see the Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil Teachers), or, not being a Pupil Teacher, must be over eighteen years of age on October 1st, 1906.

A candidate who has not been a Pupil Teacher must produce a satisfactory medical certificate in a form approved by the Board, as a condition of admission to the examination.

4. (a) A candidate who has obtained the permission of the Board to attend the examination, may be examined at a Training College if selected by the authorities of that College. Candidates must make their own arrangements with the authorities of Training Colleges.

(b) Pupil Teachers taking the King's Scholarship as their final examination, if not examined at Training Colleges, must attend at places of which information will be given to them by the Board.

5. The successful candidates will be arranged in three classes.

(a.) All successful candidates will be eligible for recognition as Uncertificated Teachers.
(b) Only those who pass in the First or Second Class may be proposed by the authorities of Training Colleges for admission as Students. (See the Regulations for Training Colleges.)
(c) Candidates will be informed by letter from the Board of Education of the result of their examination.

[page 20]

6. The subjects of Examination, as shown in detail below, are:

1. Reading.
2. Recitation.
3. Teaching.
4. Drawing.
5. Music.
6. Needlework (women only).
7. Penmanship.
8. Dictation.
9. English Composition.
10. English Language and Literature.
11. Geography.
12. History.
13. Arithmetic.
14. Algebra.
15. Geometry.
16. A language other than English.
17. Elementary Science.

7. Copies of the papers set at previous Examinations may be obtained from Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C., or through any bookseller, price 6d. each.

DETAILED SYLLABUS OF THE SUBJECTS OF EXAMINATION

Defective spelling or handwriting may be taken into account in estimating the value of a Candidate's work

*1. READING

To read with clear enunciation, ease and intelligence, from a work of a standard prose author and of a standard poet.

*Failure in this subject will entail failure in the whole examination.

2. RECITATION

To repeat 100 lines of Shakespeare or some other standard English Author with clearness and force, and knowledge of the meaning.

In place of 50 lines of English, candidates from Welsh districts may substitute 50 lines from a standard Welsh author.

N.B. Candidates employed in Public Elementary Schools must perform the exercises in Reading and Repetition at one of the Inspector's visits to the School, or at such time and place as may be arranged in the year in which they present themselves for the King's Scholarship Examination; other candidates will be heard at the place of examination. The marks obtained cannot be carried forward to a future examination.
3. TEACHING

1. To teach a class in the presence of H.M. Inspector.

N.B. Marks can only be obtained by Candidates who are employed as teachers in any recognised capacity, or who have been so employed, within two years preceding their examination, in a school under inspection by the Board of Education. The candidate must teach at one of the Inspector's visits to the school during the two years preceding the King's Scholarship Examination.

In Welsh districts credit will be given for ability shown in utilising the children's knowledge of Welsh.


[page 21]

2. There will be no separate paper on the Theory of Teaching; but candidates will be required in the papers on the subjects of the examination to answer questions on the method of teaching any of those subjects, whether to older children or to infants.

4. DRAWING - Freehand Drawing in outline.

Candidates are required to make a drawing in outline with pencil, pen or brush on a half imperial sheet of paper from photographic representations or diagrams of ornament, foliage, fruit, etc., in different materials, e.g., stone, wood, metal, textiles, etc., represented in relief, in the flat, or in outline.

Candidates should have practised drawing from such diagrams and from actual objects themselves. The drawing must not be of the same size as the example supplied. No ruling, measuring, tracing, or use of instruments is allowed. Specimens of the Photographic illustrations used at this Examination are given in the syllabus of Freehand Drawing in outline published by the Board of Education, which may be obtained from Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C., or through any bookseller.

5. MUSIC IN BOTH NOTATIONS

(a) THEORY OF MUSIC

Marks will be deducted for indistinct or inaccurate notation.

Staff Notation

All the major and minor scales and signatures. Diatonic and chromatic intervals. Easy transposition. The value of notes, dotted notes, and rests. Bars and time signatures. Transposition of time. Syncopation. Compass of voices. Common musical terms. Translation of a short passage into Tonic Sol-fa Notation.

Tonic Sol-fa Notation

The major and minor modes. Bridge notes and first removes of key. Chromatic names. Relative pitch of keys and notes. Diatonic and chromatic intervals. Pulses, measures. Pulse division in halves, quarters, thirds, etc. Syncopation. Compass of voices. Common musical terms. Translation of a short passage into Staff Notation.

(b) PRACTICAL MUSIC (in either Notation)

Graded tests in tune, time, and ear training, based upon the requirements for the various school divisions.

The highest marks will be given to candidates able to sing at sight passages combining time and tune, and to tell ear exercises freely.

(i) Candidates may take theory of music without also taking practical music.

[page 22]

(ii.) The tests can be sung from the staff or tonic sol-fa notation at the option of the candidate, but additional credit will be given to candidates singing the tune and time tests from both notations.
(iii.) Each candidate will be tested in time and one other point (note or ear).
(iv.) No songs are required.
6. NEEDLEWORK (Women only)

One of the following exercises will be set:

(a) A test in making or mending some part of a calico or flannel garment; or
(b) A test in cutting out by proportion or by measurement one of the following garments:

A chemise, an overall, and a gored petticoat.
7. PENMANSHIP

To set copies in large and small hand.

8. WRITING FROM DICTATION

9. ENGLISH COMPOSITION

To write a short essay upon a given subject.

10. ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

1. Parsing and analysis of an unseen passage of English prose or verse.

2. Elementary Etymology, and a general outline of the history of the English language.

3. (a) For exact and detailed study: the following books: Shakespeare: "Much Ado About Nothing"; and Bacon: The following Essays: Essay of Truth, Revenge, Marriage and Single Life, Great Place, Travaile, Innovations, Gardens, Studies.

(b) For general reading: Dickens: David Copperfield; Scott: Lay of the Last Minstrel; Scott: The Talisman.

Some alternative sentences in Welsh may be set for parsing and analysis.

11. GEOGRAPHY

Outlines of the physical and political geography of the world, with special reference to the British Isles, India, and the chief British Colonies and Dependencies.

Candidates are advised to practise the drawing of sketch maps and to illustrate their answers by means of them. No detailed maps will be required at the Examination.

Some alternative questions will be set on Welsh geography and industries.


[page 23]

12. HISTORY

1. Outlines of English History from the Roman Invasion to 1603.

2. Detailed study of English History from 1487-1558.

Some alternative questions will be set on Welsh history.

13. ARITHMETIC

Excluding Cube Root, Scales of Notation, Foreign Exchanges, True Discount, Troy Weight, and Apothecaries' Weight.

Any question on Stocks will be of a simple character, and will not involve a knowledge of "Brokerage".

Candidates must understand the principles of the Metric System.

14. ALGEBRA (for Men only)

As far as, and including, quadratic equations of one unknown quantity and simple simultaneous equations of two unknown quantities, with easy problems leading up to these equations.

When questions are set on graphs, squared paper will be provided.

15. GEOMETRY (for Men only)

Candidates may be examined either (A) in Euclid or (B) on the Syllabus set forth below; they cannot, however, be examined both on this Syllabus and in Euclid.

A. EUCLID: Books I and II, with simple geometrical exercises.

N.B. Euclid's definitions will be required, and no axioms or postulates except Euclid's may be assumed. Tile actual proofs of propositions as given in Euclid will not be required, but no proof of any proposition occurring in Euclid will be admitted in which use is made of any proposition which in Euclid's order occurs subsequently.
or

B. (SYLLABUS FOR CANDIDATES WHO DO NOT TAKE EUCLID).

Every Candidate taking this Syllabus must be provided with a ruler graduated in inches and tenths of an inch, and in centimetres and millimetres, a small set square, a protractor, compasses furnished with a hard pencil point, and a hard penciL

Figures should be drawn accurately with a hard pencil.

Questions may be set in which the use of the set square or of the protractor is forbidden.

Any proof of a Proposition will be accepted which appears to the Examiners to form part of a logical order of treatment of the subject. In the proof of theorems and deductions from them, the use of hypothetical constructions is permitted.

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY

The following constructions and easy extensions of them:

Bisection of angles and of straight lines.
Construction of perpendiculars to straight lines.
Simple cases of the construction from sufficient data of triangles and quadrilaterals.

[page 24]

Construction of parallels to a given straight line.
Construction of angles equal to a given angle.
Division of straight lines into a given number of equal parts.
Construction of a triangle equal in area to a given polygon.
Construction of tangents to a circle.
Construction of common tangents to two circles.
Construction of circumscribed, inscribed, and escribed circles of a triangle.
Candidates will be expected to be acquainted with the forms of the cube, the rectangular block, the sphere, the cylinder, and the cone.

THEORETICAL GEOMETRY

The substance of the theorems contained in Euclid, Book I, Propositions 4-6, 8, 13-16, 18, 19, 26-30, 32-41, 43, 47, 48, and Book III, Propositions 3, 14-16, 18-22, 31. Questions upon these theorems, easy deductions from them, and arithmetical illustrations will be included.

14 & 15 S. GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA (FOR Women WHO DO NOT TAKE A PAPER IN LANGUAGES).

Instead of a paper in Languages women may take an alternative paper in Elementary Mathematics comprising:

1. ALGEBRA

Notation, easy examples in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. Simple equations with one unknown, and problems leading up to such equations.

2. GEOMETRY

Candidates may be examined either (A) in Euclid or (B) on the Syllabus set forth below. They cannot, however, be examined both on this Syllabus and in Euclid.

A. EUCLID: Book I with simple Geometrical exercises. (See note N.B. to Men's Syllabus.)

B. (SYLLABUS FOR CANDIDATES WHO DO NOT TAKE EUCLID).

Every candidate taking this Syllabus must be provided with a ruler graduated in inches and tenths of an inch, and in centimetres and millimetres, a small set square, compasses furnished with a hard pencil point, a protractor, and a hard pencil.

Figures should be drawn accurately with a hard pencil.

Questions may be set in which the use of the set square or of the protractor is forbidden. Any proof of a Proposition will be accepted which appears to the Examiner to form part of a logical order of treatment of the subject. In the proof of theorems and in deductions from them the use of hypothetical constructions is permitted.


[page 25]

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY

The following constructions and easy extensions of them -

Bisection of angles and of straight lines.
Construction of perpendiculars to straight lines.
Simple cases of the construction from sufficient data of triangles and of quadrilaterals.
Construction of parallels to a given straight line.
Construction of angles equal to a given angle.
Division of straight lines into a given number of equal parts.
Candidates will be expected to be acquainted with the forms of the cube, the rectangular block, the sphere, the cylinder, and the cone.

THEORETICAL GEOMETRY

The substance of the theorems contained in Euclid, Book I, Propositions 4-6, 8, 13-16, 18, 19, 26-30, 32-41, 43.

Questions upon these theorems, easy deductions from them, and arithmetical illustrations will be included.

*16. A LANGUAGE other than English: One of the following:

(i) Latin - Quintus Curtius: History of Alexander the Great, Book IX., Chaps. 6-end.
(ii.) Greek - Lucian, Charon.
(iii) French and (iv) German - No set Books.
(v) Hebrew - The Book of Judges.
(vi) Welsh - Mabinogion (0 Lyfr Coch Hergest), original collection - Edited by J. M. Edwards.
Each paper will contain, in addition to passages for translation into English from the set book, grammatical questions and easy passages for translation from English into the language chosen.

There will be easy unseen passages for translation into English.

N.B. Candidates who obtain less than 25 per cent of the marks allowed for this subject, will not be credited with any marks, and those who obtain 25 (or more) per cent of such marks, will have their marks adjusted as the Board of Education may deem necessary in order to prevent undue credit being obtained for a low degree of knowledge.
17. ELEMENTARY SCIENCE

Section 1

MATTER. Forms of matter. Indestructibility of matter. Mass, volume, density, specific gravity, weight. Centre of gravity.

FORCE, MOTION AND INERTIA. The parallelogram of forces. Composition and resolution of forces. Conversion of rectilinear into circular motion.

*Instead of a Language, Women may take the special paper in Algebra and Geometry.


[page 26]

THE MECHANICAL POWERS. Principles of the lever, the pulley, the inclined plane, and the screw.

ENERGY. Heat, radiation, electricity, and chemical action as forms of energy. Mechanical work.

HEAT AND TEMPERATURE. Discrimination between heat and temperature. Effects of heat. The measurement of temperature by thermometers. Conduction and Convection. Change of state caused by heat, as in ice, water, and steam.

RADIATION. Rectilinear propagation of radiation. Reflection and refraction of radiation. The analysis of light by a prism and its recomposition. The colour disc. The visible spectrum.

ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY. Mixtures and compounds. Water; its composition proved by analysis, and synthesis; its physical properties. Elementary properties of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, iron and mercury, and of water, carbon dioxide, lime, silica, and the alkalis, common salt, iron oxide, and mercuric oxide.

TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. Properties of the loadstone and artificial magnet. The earth a magnet. Primary laws of magnetic attraction and repulsion, Dip. The earth's magnetic poles.

Section 2

One of the subjects A, B, C, that follow:

A. ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY. Elementary properties of chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus, marsh gas, coal gas, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and of the common metals, e.g., lead, copper, etc.

Combination by weight and by volume. Explanation and use of chemical formulæ.

B. ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY. Measurement of angles by degrees, minutes, etc. Determination of positions of celestial bodies by azimuth and altitude. Elementary descriptions of chief apparent motions of (1) fixed stars, (2) sun, (3) moon, and simple explanations of such motions.

Simple explanations of phases of moon, lunar and solar eclipses and seasons.

Telescopic appearance of moon.

C. ELEMENTARY BlOLOGY. Organised or living matter. Tissues, organs. Organic and inorganic substances.

The chemical changes of oxygen, water, carbonic acid, starch and sugar in living processes.

Plant Life. The life history of a non-flowering plant, e.g., the fern, and of a flowering plant, e.g., the bean, pea, or laburnum. The distribution of seeds. The influence of light and colour in the growth of plants.


[page 27]

Animal Life. The life history of a simple quadruped, e.g., the rabbit or cat, including the structure of the skeleton and the simple facts of respiration, circulation, alimentation, and muscular movement.

N.B. It is expected that candidates will have obtained an experimental knowledge of the Chemistry and Physics set forth in this syllabus. The syllabus has therefore been so arranged that the necessary experiments can be conducted without any expensive apparatus or materials. A list of illustrative experiments adapted to this scheme will be found in the Syllabuses for Physiography and Elementary Biology issued by the Board of Education; South Kensington.

Candidates should have performed some of these or some similar experiments for themselves.

It is desirable that candidates who propose to take subject B should have been trained to notice and record the positions of the various heavenly bodies.

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION CERTIFICATES

Subject to the following regulations, marks, available for the King's Scholarship Examination, may be obtained at any examination for University Extension Certificates held by the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the University of London, the University of Durham, the University of Liverpool, or the University of Birmingham, or by any College of University rank approved by the Board of Education for the purpose.

1. The subject of examination must be connected with one of the following branches of knowledge:

(a) English Language and Literature.
(b) Geography.
(c) History.
(d) Languages.
2. The subject chosen and a syllabus of the lectures on which the examination is based, must be previously approved by the Board of Education.

3. The course must consist of not less than 24 lectures, supplemented by classes.

4. Candidates must have attended both the lectures and the classes with due regularity, and must have worked the papers in connection with the lectures to the satisfaction of the lecturer.

A certificate of the University Extension Authority that these conditions have been satisfied will be accepted by the Board of Education, provided that the specific requirements of the Authority as to regularity of attendance have been previously approved by the Board.

5. The examination must be held after the completion of the approved course of lectures during the twelve months preceding the King's Scholarship Examination at which the candidate presents himself.

6. The examination must be conducted by a competent examiner other than the teacher or lecturer.

7. A candidate who claims credit for marks at any such examination may not obtain credit for marks for the corresponding subject in this syllabus. The maximum in each subject will exceed by 25 per cent the maximum for the corresponding subject in the King's Scholarship Examination.


[page 28]

APPENDIX E

Rules for the keeping of Accounts in Pupil Teacher Centres not provided by Local Education Authorities

1. The Centre must not be conducted for private profit or for the profit of a public company, and must not be farmed out to any member of the staff.

2. The maintenance accounts of the Centre, together with vouchers, must be annually submitted to a qualified public accountant and auditor, and must be audited and certified correct by him. A summary account of income and expenditure must then be submitted to the Board of Education in such form as they may require.

3. Where a Centre forms part of a Secondary School, an apportionment of the expenses must be made in such a way as to satisfy the auditor and the Board.

4. The salary of each member of the staff must be separately entered in the annual statement. Where a teacher receives board and lodging in lieu of salary, an estimated amount, previously approved by the Board, may appear in the account.

5. The fees charged in the Centre must be suitable to the circumstances of the locality, and must be approved by the Board. No charge other than the fees must be made to students.

6. Such part of the income of the Centre as arises from the Parliamentary Grant must not be applied to meet any rent or charge in the nature of rent or any expenditure on premises or furniture other than that for ordinary repairs, and where any such charge is included in the annual account, it must not exceed the amount of income received in that year from sources other than the Parliamentary Grant and balance in hand.

7. Rent and charges in the nature of rent may not be charged against students' fees except on the conditions stated in the following Memorandum.

Memorandum as to the Application of Students' Fees to payment of Rent

1. For the purposes of this Memorandum "Rent" may be taken to include not only annual rent reserved under a lease or agreement but also -

(a) Interest payable on mortgages of the premises;
(b) Interest (at a rate not exceeding 4%) on money borrowed for the establishment and equipment of the Centre;
(c) Interest (at a rate not exceeding 4%) on capital moneys actually expended by the Managers or promoters in the establishment and equipment of the Centre.
2. The following are cases in which the Board will ordinarily and at present allow "rent" to be charged in the accounts:
(a) When the Centre is conducted by a Local Education Authority;
(b) When the premises of the Centre are hired for that purpose by the Managers from a Local Education Authority and the Local Education Authority approve of such a charge;

[page 29]

(c) When the Centre is conducted by the Governing Body of a University or College of University rank, or by a Committee nominated by, and responsible to such a Governing Body;

(d) When the funds and property of the Centre are held in trust solely for educational purposes. In this case only, payments made by way of sinking fund may also be charged against students' fees.

3. Where the premises, furniture or equipment by means of which the Centre is conducted are private property or are held on trust for purposes which are not purely educational, or are hired by the Managers from an ordinary landlord, the Board will not allow income derived from students' fees to be applied so as to increase the value of the property, or so as to yield a profit to the Managers. When it is proposed in any such case to charge "rent", it must be clearly shown that such a charge is necessary to render the Centre self-supporting. The Managers will be required to give an undertaking that any balance of income after providing for the cost of maintenance shall be applied or held by them for the benefit of the students or for some other purely educational object approved by the Board.

Maintenance may be taken as including such items as rates, taxes, and ordinary repairs to buildings and replacement of furniture, but not the provision of additional buildings or furniture, and the Board reserve to themselves the discretion to disallow any item of expenditure if they think proper.

The annual accounts must be rendered in such a form as to enable the Board to satisfy themselves that the expenditure charged may properly be regarded as cost of maintenance.

4. Where the "rent" which it is proposed to charge is other than a rent actually payable, under a lease or tenancy agreement, to an ordinary landlord, the Board will require full particulars of the basis on which the charge is calculated. If the charge represents interest (or, in the case of premises held on trust for purely educational purposes, sinking fund), a separate capital account must be rendered annually.




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APPENDIX F

HINTS ON THE ORGANISATION OF THE INSTRUCTION OF PUPIL TEACHERS*

1. CONTINUED NEED FOR A PUPIL TEACHER SYSTEM

It is clear that Pupil Teachers not only must, but should, continue to be an important part of the educational system of the country. There is already a deficiency in the supply of certificated teachers, and, in view of the inevitable increase of expenditure upon many schools which have hitherto been inadequately staffed, this deficiency will not tend, at any rate for the present, to diminish. It is estimated that 1,000 new Certificated Teachers are annually required by the London School Board alone, and that of these the Pupil Teachers now trained by that Board are sufficient, and only sufficient, to supply 480. It follows that, although every effort should be made to find recruits for the teaching profession in other ways it would by no means be the course of practical wisdom, at the present moment, to destroy the system, which, however inadequate, is the only assured source of supply. Even, were this not so, it is probably true that the practical experience due to employment at an early age in Elementary Schools forms a valuable element, not otherwise easily attainable, in the training of a Teacher. It was certainly from this point of view, and not merely as a second-rate expedient that Sir James Shuttleworth originally introduced the system. He wrote as follows of his contemplated Pupil Teachers:

The whole groundwork of their studies will have been laid with technical accuracy - they will have acquired considerable practical acquaintance with school-keeping, and in other respects they will be prepared for more comprehensive and higher instruction - they will be ready to grasp principles which will group together the fragments of their previous learning, and to understand theoretic lessons on School management by the light of their previous experience.
2. USE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

On the other hand, it is equally important at the present moment that fresh blood should be introduced into the Pupil Teacher system by the drawing of candidates from Secondary Schools and by the utilisation of Secondary Schools to the fullest extent possible for the purposes of their training. It is to be hoped, not only that a fresh source of supply may in this way be tapped, but also that the result may be to bring the Pupil Teachers under the influence of a wider outlook and a more humane ideal of Education than have been possible under the difficult conditions generally prevalent in the past. Even where, merely as to instruction, a Secondary School presents no great advantage over a Higher Elementary School or a specialised Pupil Teacher Centre, there will be a social gain, if candidates are drawn from homes of more than one class and if something is thus done to break down the existing and undesirable barrier between Elementary and Secondary School Teachers.

The Pupil Teacher Centre may be merely fed from Secondary Schools, instead of from Preparatory Classes of its own, without being in any organic connection with such Schools. Some of the best existing Centres already draw largely upon the Secondary Schools for candidates. This is the case, for instance, at Bristol, where intending Pupil Teachers have received scholarships at the School of Science, and where 78 out of 165 Pupil Teachers have had this origin. Similarly, at Stockton-on-Tees, 50 out of 70 Pupil Teachers at the Centre have come from a Secondary School; and the experience of Cardiff, Lincoln and Nottingham also goes to show that Pupil-Teachers are more easily obtained and are better educated to start with where good Secondary or Higher Elementary

*These were originally issued with Circular 494 on 18th December, 1903.


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Schools exist; while on the other hand, Darlington, Preston and Blackpool are examples of places where well organised Pupil Teacher Centres are hampered by the want of Secondary Schools as feeders.

The Secondary character of a Centre is, however, strengthened when its candidates are not only drafted in from Secondary Schools, but also continue during their career as Pupil Teachers to form, in some sense, part of such a School. This method of organisation is still in its experimental stage; but many of the newly established County Schools in North Wales are freely available for Pupil Teachers, while in England a similar use is made of the Cheltenham, Cirencester and Spalding Grammar Schools, and of the High School at Keswick. In Wiltshire, the buildings at least of Secondary Schools are utilised for the instruction of Pupil Teachers, who are brought into the small towns from the rural area. The fact that Pupil Teachers can only attend half-time naturally leads to the organisation of their work as a distinct half-time department of a school, in which instruction is given apart from that of the ordinary scholars. Hereby something of the advantage, social and intellectual, of their position is inevitably lost, and it has been suggested that it might be possible so to arrange the timetable as to provide that the Pupil Teachers should receive class instruction with the rest of the school in the mornings, and that the other scholars should take subjects, such as music and the like, which do not entail class instruction, in the afternoons. The experiment has been tried at Barry, near Cardiff; where the Pupil Teachers attend in the morning and share instruction with the scholars in the Intermediate School, and to some extent at Scarborough, where the Pupil Teachers are taught during one year of their engagement with the rest of the Secondary School, while in the next year they are organised as a distinct class. But it seems very doubtful whether the advantage of any such system to the Pupil Teachers can compensate for the disorganisation necessarily caused in the rest of the school, and the half-time department should probably be the normal arrangement. This will still enable the Pupil Teachers to obtain very many of the advantages of the corporate life of the Secondary School.

The advantage of their position in a Secondary School is far more seriously diminished when the Pupil Teachers not only do not share instruction with the other scholars, but are also unable to join in the games and the ordinary social life of the school. This is the case in Wiltshire, where most of the Pupil Teachers have to be conveyed a considerable distance to school, and also in North Wales, where the fact that the Pupil Teachers have no mid-week half-holiday interferes with their joining fully in games. Every effort should be made to overcome this drawback; and the half holiday in the middle of the week, as well as the regular Saturday half-holiday, will be of great importance on this as well as on other more obvious grounds. There are naturally other difficulties in the way of the instruction of Pupil Teachers in Secondary Schools besides that of organisation. There is the "class" problem to be faced. It is probable that the tradition and habit of social differentiation would make it difficult (at all events for some time to come) to draft Pupil Teachers to any large extent into many schools of the old grammar school type, and it is understood that the teachers of these, as well as of some schools of the modern high school type, join with the parents of their existing scholars in deprecating the possible changes in the character of the schools, both social and intellectual, which might result. But it may be hoped that the difficulty will tend to disappear as the number of Pupil Teachers who have already had their preliminary education in Secondary Schools increases. Again, in many places the supply of Secondary Schools is inadequate, and in order to provide effectively for Pupil Teachers it would be necessary to establish additional Schools, as has been done so largely in Wales. The curriculum of some of the existing Secondary Schools is also either on the one hand too scientific or on the other hand too classical to be suitable for Pupil Teachers, and there is a certain prejudice which would need to be overcome amongst the Head Teachers of Elementary Schools against


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Assistants who have been educated in Secondary Schools - a prejudice which fortunately is not infrequently removed when such Head Teachers and Assistants have worked together for a sufficient length of time.

3. CENTRES INDEPENDENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Where a Secondary School is not available for the training of Pupil Teachers throughout their engagement, the Pupil Teacher Centre must necessarily have an independent existence. There is a notable example of such an institution at Leeds, where a Pupil Teacher College, built at a cost of 50,000, is training 80 boys and 473 girls from Leeds and the surrounding districts. The Centre established by the Nottingham Board is similarly training 150 Pupil Teachers, while a Centre at Halifax, located in a building attached to the Higher Grade Board School, is attended by 21 boys and 64 girls. These, like the admirable new Centre at Bolton, are Day Centres. Experiments have also been made, chiefly by denominational bodies, in collecting Pupil Teachers not merely for their instruction during the day but also for board and residence. Examples may be found in Roman Catholic Centres at Birmingham and Leeds and in a Church of England Centre at Wantage.

It will not always be necessary to provide special buildings for a Pupil Teacher Centre. In many places, particularly in Lancashire, there are available Technical Institutes, fitted with admirable laboratories and rooms for instruction in special subjects, which are at present mainly used for Evening Classes, and are more or less standing idle in the daytime. In some of these, as at Wakefield and at Darlington, Pupil Teacher Centres have been organised, and these might become the nucleus of complete Secondary Day Schools. Care would, however, have to be taken that the curriculum was not overweighted with too much teaching of science to the exclusion of other essential subjects. This is a risk which should never be lost sight of where a Secondary School is developed out of a Technical Institute.

4. PREPARATORY CLASSES

Where a Centre is not able to draw its supply of candidates from Secondary Schools, Preparatory Classes, "attached" to the Centre itself, may serve to fill the gap. The Board do not consider that such classes and the centre to which they are "attached" will necessarily form part of the same institution or be under the same Managers: the essence of the arrangement lies partly in the organic relation of the Classes and the Centre as regards curriculum and methods, and partly in the constant flow of students from one to the other and the existence of some definite scheme by which pupils in the Classes are secured admission at the requisite period into the Centre to which they are "attached". The establishment of such Preparatory Classes within a Secondary School will also often be found a convenient arrangement.

Several School Boards have by preference drawn their Pupil Teachers from Higher Grade Elementary Schools, considering that the subjects taught in these schools included most of those taught in Secondary Schools, and that in some cases equally good instruction was attainable at less expense. Similarly it may in the future be desirable in some cases to attach a Pupil Teacher Centre to a Higher Elementary School. This is already done at Lincoln, where a Higher Elementary School and a Centre are practically under one Principal, while at Nottingham a Centre is fed by three Higher Elementary Schools and at Carlisle a Higher Grade School, an ordinary Elementary School and a Pupil Teacher Centre are all organised as a single institution. Since, however, Higher Elementary Schools are not able to retain their students until the age at which they are eligible to enter upon engagements as Pupil Teachers, it will generally be necessary to establish an intermediate Preparatory Class, in which intending Pupil Teachers would receive instruction for the year immediately preceding their engagement.


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5. RELATION OF PUPIL TEACHER CENTRES TO HIGHER EDUCATION

It is desirable that where possible a Pupil Teacher Centre should not only be in touch with the various forms of Education received by pupils up to the age of 16, but also with those forms of Higher Education which may in time be available for the Pupil Teachers at a later stage in their career. At the Reading College and at the Hartley College, Southampton, which are University Colleges and also Day Training Colleges, Centres have been started where the instruction is mainly given by the University staffs, and this is an experiment which might well be attempted in other places.* It may be added that University Extension Lectures have in some cases been of great benefit to Pupil Teachers.

6. MIXED CENTRES

The investigations of the Committee disclose a very considerable diversity of opinion as to whether boy and girl Pupil Teachers should be instructed in the same Centre. The difficulty is not so much one of attainments, since the girls appear to be fully able to hold their own with the boys in this respect, as of social and personal relations. On the whole, although there are good examples of successful Mixed Centres in existence, experience would seem to be against the system. Even if co-education prove the ultimate counsel of perfection for the general education of boys and girls above the age of 16, yet it is at present of the nature of an experiment, and of an experiment which should only be attempted under the best possible conditions. The difficulties already attending Pupil Teacher instruction are so considerable that this would not appear to offer the most advantageous ground for experiment. Financial considerations, where the number of boy Pupil Teachers is only a small one, would often appear to be in favour of a Mixed Centre. But it would probably be always better to make an effort to provide for the boys in Secondary Schools and to organise the girls independently in a Centre. In any case it is of the first importance that, where girls are taught, either the Principal of the Centre should be a woman, or else a woman of experience should be appointed with special powers as regards the superintendence of the girls.

7. PUPIL TEACHERS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Probably the most difficult question connected with the training of Pupil Teachers concerns the methods by which their service in Public Elementary Schools may be made a really effective part of their training. The schemes put forward by the Federation of the Instructors of Pupil Teacher Centres contemplate that in future Pupil Teachers shall only be employed in specially selected schools, where it is known that they will receive adequate supervision and guidance; and many members of the Committee and others whom they have consulted appear to think that some such limitation would be desirable. Much advantage might also be obtained from allowing the Principal of the Centre to visit the Elementary Schools from time to time and confer with the Head Teachers of those schools upon the methods of training employed and upon the individual progress of the Pupil Teachers. This, if done with tact, need not result in friction.

It is of course essential that during the period of their service in the schools the Pupil Teachers should receive actual and carefully supervised practice in teaching, and should not, as has sometimes been the case in the

*NOTE. In this way a proper correlation of the work in the Pupil Teacher Centre and the Training College or Classes for the instruction of those preparing for the Certificate Examination will be easier of attainment. But to organise the two grades of instruction with a staff wholly or largely in common is of doubtful advantage on any ground other than economy. Where this last consideration is paramount, great care will be needed to ensure that the instruction given to the two grades of student is suitable both in standard and in the method of its presentation.


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past, be used merely as carriers of apparatus and messages, or be set to do little odd jobs without any continuous work, interest, or sense of responsibility. It is desirable that each Pupil Teacher should be made responsible at any rate for a small class during a continuous period, and should thus learn to correlate the subjects of instruction with one another, to exercise discipline and to exert influence over children. A further advantage to be derived from continuous employment of this character is that an adequate test is thereby provided of the physical fitness and mental disposition of the Pupil Teacher for a somewhat arduous career. There is, however, some conflict of opinion as to whether the period of a Pupil Teacher's engagement should be broken up into two distinct periods, one for instruction and the other for practical training. Such a method has been tried experimentally at Halifax, and with some modification the experiment could be continued under the new Regulations. It would be possible to concentrate the period of instruction in the Centre during the second half of the first year of engagement and first half of the second year, leaving an unbroken six months at the beginning and the end of the engagement for work in the Elementary Schools. On the other hand, many teachers of considerable experience protest against the divorce between general education and professional training which such an arrangement involves. In any case it will often be found desirable that some short probationary period of full-time employment in a Public Elementary School should precede the definite appointment of a Pupil Teacher.

8. FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS

The method of instructing Pupil Teachers in Centres no doubt involves a considerably greater expense than the old method of entrusting them to the teachers of the Elementary Schools in which they serve. The very various organisation of existing Centres makes it hard to form any precise estimate of the probable cost which a fully adequate Centre under the new regulations will involve. The accounts of six large Borough Centres established by School Boards show that the average annual cost to the rates for the maintenance, over and above the 2 received from Whitehall and the Science and Art grants received from South Kensington, was 2 16s. 6d. for each Pupil Teacher instructed. In three voluntary Centres in the same area, where the Pupil Teachers were taught in the buildings of Technical Institutes, the total cost of maintenance varied from 3 11s. to 4 15s. This, however, was gross cost and was largely met, directly or indirectly, out of grants. Another set of figures shows the gross cost of maintenance in a number of Centres variously organised as varying from 3 to 10. The gross cost of maintenance of a well equipped and staffed Secondary Day School of 100 pupils will probably not be less than from 10 to 15 a head. But it must be borne in mind that Pupil Teachers can only attend half time, and that by instructing those of different years in shifts a considerable saving may be effected. In most places it is found that Pupil Teachers are able to contribute something themselves in the shape of fees, and where they have done this there is naturally some guarantee that they are the less likely to abandon the profession.

To the cost of maintenance must, of course, be added the expense of building, and, in rural areas, a considerable sum for travelling. The training of Teachers will, in fact, be in every way a more expensive undertaking in rural areas than in towns. It is estimated that, owing to the number of small Centres necessary, maintenance alone will cost the East Riding 6 10s. for each Pupil Teacher, or double the probable cost in the neighbouring County Boroughs. To this must be added something like 4 a head for railway travelling. Some economy in travelling may be effected by judicious organisation. At Blackpool a Centre has been organised which serves the Blackpool and Fleetwood urban areas, and also a number of schools in a neighbouring rural area. Pupil Teachers from the


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rural schools attend two whole days in the week, instead of four half days, and so save in travelling expenses. It is equally possible, of course, to arrange for the attendance of the students at the Centre continuously for alternate weeks or alternate months. Where the method of giving whole time instruction for a sufficiently long continuous period prevails, it might be possible to arrange that Pupil Teachers from rural schools should be accommodated in hostels.

9. EDUCATIONAL DANGERS OF CENTRES

The shortened time which is at the disposal of Pupil Teachers for purposes of education, owing to their employment in Elementary Schools, is found to lead in practice to several defects from a strictly educational point of view. The instruction is too often subordinated to the imminent examination. Lecturing and dictation are too apt to take the place of private reading and independent study. Time is thought to be saved by the use of over-annotated text books, with the inevitable result of cram in place of mental discipline. Physical training, again, is, even in some good Centres, almost entirely neglected, and the little time for recreation available for Pupil Teachers is not only injurious both physically and mentally, but also operates as a real cause in deterring promising boys and girls from entering upon the profession. It is strongly to be urged that arrangements should be made between the managers of schools and the authorities of Centres to allow in every case at least one half-holiday in the week, in addition to the half or the whole of Saturday. It has already been pointed out that this is particularly important where Pupil Teachers are to join in the corporate life of a Secondary School.

10. SUBSTITUTES FOR FULLY ORGANISED CENTRES

It is probable that there will in any event be a certain number of rural areas where a fully organised Centre cannot be established and where it will nonetheless be undesirable entirely to do away with the employment of Pupil Teachers. At the same time, it is clear that the old method of instruction solely by Head Teachers is one which should only be resorted to where no better plan is available. The time of a Head Teacher is already fully occupied, and it is clearly impossible that he should give properly prepared instruction in the short time at his disposal to Pupil Teachers in various stages of their training. On the other hand, the experience of the Lincoln Training College that many of the best students still come out of such a system is probably not without its parallels elsewhere; and there are many who deprecate the loss of personal influence and sense of responsibility in the Head Teacher which has been the result of the introduction of the Centre system. In view, however, of the preponderance of advantage attaching to this system, the loss is probably inevitable, and may perhaps be compensated for by the increased attention which the Head Teacher will be able to devote to the task of initiating the novice in the practical work of his profession and overlooking his private reading.

It was a feature of the old system that it entailed, as a rule, instruction either in the evening or in the early morning before the school work began for the day. Under the new Regulations no instruction may, as a rule, be given before 7.30 a.m, or after 6 p.m., and it is clear that instruction given as a mere appendix to a full day's work cannot receive the best energies either of the teacher or the pupil.

A good deal may, no doubt, be done in rural districts by Saturday morning classes. At Carlisle, and elsewhere, rural Pupil Teachers are taught as best they may be by their Head Teachers during the week and are collected on Saturday morning at Centres for supplementary instruction. At Kendal such a Saturday meeting is devoted to planning out the studies for the following week. In the Isle of Wight there has been for some time an arrangement by which the Pupil Teachers from the whole of the island


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are collected at Newport for instruction on one day of the week as well as on Saturday morning. Assistance may also be obtained from peripatetic teachers sent round to the various districts in turn and forming small temporary Centres there, but it is clear that such teachers must necessarily be imperfectly in touch with the Pupil Teachers, whom they only see at considerable intervals.

Much use is made at present of Correspondence Classes, but these, although they may be sometimes a necessity and sometimes helpful to supplement other instruction, cannot fill the place of that personal contact, intellectual and moral, between teacher and taught, which is of the essence of true education.





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Circular 496.

Circular to Local Education Authorities*

Admission Examination for Pupil Teachers, 1904. (Revised March, 1904.)

BOARD OF EDUCATION,
Whitehall, London, S.W.
5th February, 1904.

SIR

1. The Collective Examination held by the Board of Education, for enabling Candidates to qualify for engagement as Pupil Teachers, in accordance with Article 35 of the Provisional Code for 1903, and Article 9(b) of the Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil Teachers, will take place on Saturday, May 14th, 1904. A Supplementary Examination for the benefit of those Candidates who, owing to illness or some other sufficient reason, are not able to attend on the earlier date, will take place, if required, on Friday, May 27th.

2. It appears to the Board that the names of those boys and girls who desire to offer themselves for examination may best be collected by the Local Education Authorities for Elementary Education. H.M. Inspectors have therefore instructions to arrange with these Authorities for Centres at which the examination can most conveniently be held. Suitable schedules for the names of Candidates will be issued by the Board. The names should be entered on these by the Authority in triplicate, and in strict alphabetical order. The Inspectors will subsequently record upon them the success or failure of each Candidate, and will forward one copy of each schedule to the Authority, and another to the Board.

3. The Collective Examination is open to all suitable Candidates without regard to religious belief. It is not necessary for admission to the Examination that a Candidate should have received a nomination to a Pupil Teachership in any particular School.

4. The names of Candidates for the Examination may be received by the Local Education Authority, either by direct application from the Candidate or through the Managers of Schools, whether Elementary or Secondary, within the area. Instructions with regard to the various grades of the Examination and the conditions under which it is held are appended to this Circular.

5. An Authority may properly refuse to accept the name of any Candidate who will not be old enough for engagement as Pupil Teacher within two years of the date of the Examination, or who fails to send in his name by a date to be fixed by the Authority. Candidates who for any other reason are obviously unsuitable, may be rejected by the Authority, with the consent of the Inspector.

6. The Local Education Authority should require from the parents or guardians of each Candidate a statement in writing of the desire of the Candidate, if successful in the Examination, to serve as a Pupil Teacher. But it must be understood that the Examination conducted by the Board will be merely a qualifying Examination; success in it does not necessarily confer a right to employment as a Pupil Teacher.

7. It is at any time open to the Local Education Authority or to the Managers of a Pupil Teacher Centre to submit to the Board of Education a scheme for an Examination of intending Pupil Teachers to be held by

*Such portions of this circular as are of general application are reprinted here for convenience of reference.


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themselves in lieu of the Board's Collective Examination, in accordance with Article 9(c) of the Regulations for the Instruction and Training of Pupil Teachers. The Collective Examination for 1905 will be remodelled with a view to making it a general test of proficiency, which can be passed without the necessity of preparing special books or subjects by Candidates who have been instructed in accordance with the ordinary curriculum of a Secondary School or a Preparatory Class.

8. It is desirable at this junction that every Local Education Authority should consider closely the various problems connected with the supply, not only of Pupil Teachers, but also of Adult Teachers, for the Elementary Schools throughout their area, and that they should then estimate approximately the number of Pupil Teachers that will be required in the area during the year or two years next ensuing after the date of the Examination, in order to provide, in the future, an adequate supply of students qualified to enter the Training Colleges, and, subsequently, to improve and increase the Teaching Staffs of the Schools.

9. It will be remembered that the Prefatory Memorandum issued by the Board in July last with the Regulations urged the necessity of establishing "in every area some effective means for drawing candidates for the teaching profession from among the most intelligent and capable boys and girls attending the Elementary and Secondary Schools." The steps taken in regard to the approaching Collective Examination for the admission of Pupil Teachers will furnish an opportunity for initiating this much needed procedure in the areas of the various Local Authorities. Full information as to existing and future vacancies for Pupil Teachers and as to the Collective Examination should be sent by every Local Authority to all Schools, both Secondary and Elementary, from which Pupil Teachers are likely to be drawn; and the Board trust that your Authority will also take every step in their power for bringing home to the parents of school children throughout their area a knowledge of the fact that this door to the teaching profession is now thrown open in a manner and to a degree not hitherto possible.

I have the honour to be,
    Sir,
      Your obedient Servant,
        ROBERT L. MORANT.
To the Secretary to the Education Committee.