Lockwood Report (1964)

In July 1963 Minister of Education Edward Boyle called a meeting which set up a working party to make recommendations regarding the establishment of a body to oversee schools' curricula and examinations. The working party, chaired by Sir John Lockwood, submitted its report in March 1964.

A classics graduate of Corpus Christi Oxford, Lockwood (1903-1965) (pictured) was Master of Birkbeck College London from 1951 until his death and Vice Chancellor of the University of London from 1955 to 1958.

The Schools Council, on which teachers had a majority, came into being on 1 October 1964. It was abolished by the Thatcher government in 1984.

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various sections.

The report page 9
Conclusions and recommendations 16
Appendices 19

See also

The Trenaman Report (1981) Review of the Schools Council;
Change and Response, the Council's report on its first year of operation; and
The practical curriculum (1981): the Council's contribution to the 'Great Debate'

The text of the 1964 Lockwood Report was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 1 May 2024.


The Lockwood Report (1964)
Schools' Curricula and Examinations

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1964
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION


REPORT OF THE WORKING PARTY

ON THE

Schools'
Curricula and Examinations




LONDON
HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
1964

TWO SHILLINGS NET


[page 3]

MEMBERSHIP OF THE WORKING PARTY

Sir John Lockwood (Chairman) Master of Birkbeck College, University of London

Appointing BodyMember(s)Alternate(s)
National Union of TeachersMiss MA Stewart
Mr SW Exworthy*
Mr DG Gilbert*
Mr M Powell-Davies
Incorporated Association of Head MastersMr RR PedleyMr ER Taylor
Association of Head Mistresses IncorporatedMiss AF BullMiss EG Harold
Incorporated Association of Assistant MastersMr AWS HutchingsMr JWB Ruffle
Association of Assistant Mistresses IncorporatedMiss SD WoodMiss MB Thomas
Association of Teachers in Technical InstitutionsMr EL BrittonMr JL Longden
National Association of SchoolmastersMr TA CaseyMr LG Harris
The National Association of Head TeachersMr LH QuinnMr RA Mabbott
Headmasters ConferenceSir Desmond LeeMr DR Wigram
The Incorporated Association of Preparatory SchoolsMr LHA HankeyRev RG Wickham
County Councils AssociationSir Alan LubbockMr LW Brown
Association of Municipal CorporationsSir Lionel RussellMr LJ Drew
London County CouncilMrs M McIntoshDr EW Briault
Association of Education CommitteesSir William AlexanderMr JL Longland
Welsh Joint Education CommitteeMr H Wyn JonesMr TM Morgan
Church of England Schools CouncilCanon E WildCaptain H Lovegrove
Catholic Education CouncilMr R CunninghamRev L Hanlon
Committee of Vice Chancellors and PrincipalsSir Robert AitkenDr G Templeman
Committee of Principals of Colleges of Advanced TechnologyDr EJ EdwardsMr CC Hentschel
Association of Principals of Technical InstitutionsMr RE WoodMr SF Trustram

*Co-opted.


[page 4]

Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of EducationMr AA EvansMiss AEG Sephton
Conference of Heads of University Departments of EducationProfessor AV JudgesProfessor JW Tibble
Conference of Institute DirectorsMr HL ElvinProfessor WR Niblett
Secondary School Examinations CouncilMr R Beloe
Association of Chief Education OfficersMr GS BesseyMr H Oldman

The following attended from the Ministry of Education.

Assessors

Mr L R Fletcher
Mr D H Morrell
Mr J E H Blackie, HMI
Mr W R Elliot, HMI
Mr W LI Lloyd, HMI
Mr R W Morris, HMI

Secretariat

Mr L W Norwood (Secretary)
Miss M J Darby (Assistant Secretary)




[page 5]

FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION

I took the Chair at a representative meeting held in London on 19th July, 1963, to discuss the need for new co-operative machinery in the fields of the schools' curricula and examinations. The meeting appointed a working party to examine the lines on which action might be taken.

The conclusions reached by the working party are embodied in a report which they have sent to me with the suggestion that I should publish it without delay, in order that all concerned may have as much time as possible for studying it before the representative meeting is reconvened. I am glad to do this.

This report seems to me to define the problem very clearly. It is one of the most important problems now facing the education service. The positive proposals for action set out in the report have been devised with a great amount of thought and worked out very fully. They should greatly assist the representative meeting, when it is reconvened, in reaching decisions about further action.

The education service owes a debt of gratitude to Sir John Lockwood, and to all his colleagues on the working party, for the skill and care which they have devoted to their task and I should like to express my warm thanks to them.

EDWARD BOYLE

Ministry of Education,
    March, 1964.





[page 7]

LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE WORKING PARTY TO THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION

5th March, 1964

My dear Minister,

At the representative meeting held in London on 19th July last year, under your chairmanship, there was wide support for the idea of setting up new co-operative machinery in the fields of the schools' curricula and examinations, but some uncertainty as to the best way of giving effect to the proposal. The meeting therefore appointed a working party under my chairmanship, and I now have pleasure in sending you their report.

Our main conclusion is that we accept the need for new co-operative machinery in these fields, and we make recommendations for establishing a body for this purpose. We agree that it should be called the Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations, and that it should include representatives of all the interests principally concerned. We also propose that it should be set up in time to take over the functions of the present Secondary School Examinations Council. from the beginning of the 1964-65 academic year.

If this is to be practicable, while still leaving time for wide discussion of the working party's report, it will be important to publish it as soon as possible. We therefore hope that you will agree to do so, in time for the report to be available to those associations who hold their annual conferences during the Easter holiday. On this basis, we further suggest that the general meeting which set up the working party might perhaps be reconvened towards the end of May.

I should like, if I may, to end on a personal note. I have been much impressed by the growth of a common understanding of the nature of the problem, and of a common determination to find solutions by co-operative endeavour, which has characterised the meetings of the working party. This, I suggest, is a good omen for the work of the Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations which, if established, could well prove to be one of the most important educational developments since the Education Act of 1944.

Yours sincerely,        
JOHN LOCKWOOD

The Right Hon. Sir Edward Boyle, Bt., M.P.,
Minister of Education.




[page 9]

WORKING PARTY ON THE SCHOOLS' CURRICULA AND EXAMINATIONS

Report on a proposal to establish a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations

Introduction

1. We were appointed by a representative meeting held in London on 19th July, 1963. This was convened by the Minister of Education to consider a proposal to establish a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations.

2. Our terms of reference were defined in the following resolution, which was adopted unanimously by those present at the meeting:

"This representative meeting held in London on 19th July, 1963

(a) notes there is wide support for the proposal to establish co-operative machinery in the fields of the school curriculum and examinations;

(b) appoints a working party comprising, under the chairmanship of Sir John Lockwood, one representative of each of the bodies present at the meeting, together with assessors and a secretariat appointed by the Minister of Education, to consider how effect could best be given to the matters discussed and to make recommendations;

(c) agrees to reconvene to consider and reach conclusions on the working party's recommendations."

3. It was also agreed that the Association of Chief Education Officers should be represented on the working party, and that all member interests should be authorised to nominate both full and alternate members.

4. We have held four meetings, and we now submit our report. Our main conclusion is that there is a need for new co-operative machinery in the fields of the schools' curricula and examinations, and we make recommendations for establishing such a body. We suggest that it should be called the Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations, and that it should include representatives of all the interests principally concerned. We also propose that it should be set up in time to take over the functions of the present Secondary School Examinations Council from the beginning of the 1964-65 academic year.

Aims and principles

5. We considered first the principles which should govern the relationship between the schools and other bodies whose decisions and actions may affect their work.

6. We noted that it has long been accepted in England and Wales that the schools should have the fullest possible measure of responsibility for their own work, including responsibility for their own curricula and teaching methods, which should be evolved by their own staff to meet the needs of their own pupils. We re-affirm the importance of this principle, and believe that positive action is needed to uphold it.

7. The responsibility of the individual schools for their own work is not, however, an exclusive responsibility. It has inevitably to be exercised within a wider framework which takes account of the


[page 10]

general interest of the community, both local and national, in the educational process. Within this general framework, individual schools have to take a wide range of particular decisions on educational content and methods.

8. The work of the schools also has to be related to the requirements of the many and varied establishments of higher and further education to which many of the pupils will go on leaving school, and to the training arrangements and entry requirements of a wide range of professional bodies and of employers generally. There is thus a complicated, and constantly changing, relationship between the work of the schools and many particular outside interests.

9. The responsibility placed upon the schools is a heavy one. If it is to be successfully carried, the teachers must have adequate time and opportunity for regular re-appraisal of the content and methods of their work in the light of new knowledge, and of the changing needs of the pupils and of society. A sustained and planned programme of work is required, going well beyond what can be achieved by occasional conferences and courses, or by the thinking and writing of busy teachers in their spare time.

10. We concluded therefore that there was no need to define a new principle in relation to the schools' curricula and examinations. Our task was rather to examine how far the existing principle is being realised in practice, and whether new arrangements are needed to uphold and interpret it.

The outlines of the problem

11. We are unanimous in recognising the existence of a problem. There are differences of view on questions of detail, but general agreement on the main outlines. Influences are at work which could in time seriously diminish the responsibility of the schools for their own work; the pressures are already severe in the secondary schools, particularly at the level of the sixth form.

12. These influences are not sinister. No one is consciously seeking to erode the schools' responsibilities. Indeed, great strides have been made since the turn of the century in freeing the schools from detailed supervision of their work by local and central government: at both levels, the role of the Inspectorate bas become advisory rather than supervisory.

13. The problem is basically one of inadequate co-ordination where different areas of responsibility touch or overlap, and of an inadequate effort in research and development. There is, for, example, insufficient co-ordination between the development of curriculum content and teaching techniques and policy on examinations, and between the entry requirements of higher and further education and the work of the schools. The resolution of these and other problems is hampered not only by the lack of standing co-operative machinery for studying them, but also by a combination of inadequate information about the existing state of affairs, insufficient research to define new possibilities and insufficient development work to demonstrate practical applications of possible new solutions.

14. The result is that the schools, and particularly the secondary schools, find that the opportunity for independent initiative and experiment is being reduced by a complex of decisions and pressures which they cannot sufficiently control or influence. They consider, in our view rightly, that the underlying trend is towards an excessive standardisation of their work, and away from that variety of syllabus content and teaching methods which is desirable if our educational system is to be in any real sense alive. They also consider, and again we agree with them, that if the scope for innovation by the schools were increased, they would not be able to take full advantage of the new possibilities without a larger effort in research and development, in which the teachers must be enabled to play a full part.


[page 11]

15. In short, our conclusions on the nature of the problem are as follows:

(1) The present arrangements for determining the curriculum in schools and the related examinations are not working well: in particular, teachers have insufficient scope for making or recommending modifications in the curriculum and examinations.

(2) Different arrangements are needed to achieve the balanced co-operation of the teachers, the Local Education Authorities, the Ministry of Education, the establishments of higher and further education, and others, in a continuing process of modifying the curriculum and examinations.

(3) More resources and more effort should be devoted to co-operative study, research and development in this field.

The nature of the new machinery

16. We considered next the nature of the new machinery which we believe to be needed. We noted that the Minister of Education had, in February, 1962, established a new unit within his Department, known as the Curriculum Study Group. This brings together members of Her Majesty's Inspectorate, local education authority inspectors or organisers, specialists from Institutes of Education, teachers and administrators for the close and continuous full-time co-operative study of curriculum and examination problems. We welcome this initiative. We also welcome the Minister's subsequent proposal that the range of problems which are the concern of the Curriculum Study Group should be remitted to a body more fully representative of the education service as a whole, and that this body should be supported in its work by inter-disciplinary study teams on the model of the Curriculum Study Group. This approach has worked well in the limited context of the new Certificate of Secondary Education examinations, where the relationship between the representative Secondary School Examinations Council and the examinations team of the Curriculum Study Group has enabled the Council to make very thorough preparations for launching the new examinations, based on preliminary studies and research, and on the organisation and assessment of trial examinations.

17. We consider, however, that four main requirements must be met by any plan to extend these new co-operative arrangements to cover the whole field of the schools' curricula and examinations.

These are as follows:

(1) Control of the new co-operative machinery should be vested in a body fully representative of all those principally concerned. A suitable title for this body would be the Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations.

(2) The character of the new body should be that of a free association of equal partners who would combine to promote, through co-operative study of common problems, the pursuit of common objectives. The Schools Council would not, in other words, be advisory to the Minister of Education alone: it would be advisory to all its member interests. These interests would retain unimpaired their right to take decisions within their own areas of responsibility but they would seek, through the agency of the Schools Council, to co-ordinate their decisions in harmony one with another. Authorities and bodies in membership of the Council would, of course, be free to delegate such of their executive functions to the Council as they might consider desirable, just as the Minister now delegates to the Secondary School Examinations Council some of his functions as central co-ordinating authority for secondary school examinations. We would expect this particular arrangement to continue if and when a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations were set up.


[page 12]

(3) The Schools Council should have control of its own work. It should be free to select its own subjects of study; to publish its findings and recommendations, and should have full operational control of its own staff. Where a member interest requested the Council's advice on matters of particular concern to the member interest concerned, publication of the Council's advice would, however, be a matter for agreement between the Council and the member interest making the request.

(4) The new body should be regarded as complementary, and not alternative, to existing agencies for research and development. There is a need for co-operation among those concerned in defining problems for research, and in making a more effective use of research findings. But there is equally a need for more work undertaken on their own initiative by schools, groups of schools, local education authorities, Institutes of Education, bodies such as the National Foundation for Educational Research, professional associations and others.

18. On the assumption that all concerned will be prepared to accept these four requirements, we recommend that a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations be set up. We proceed to examine the objects and terms of reference of the proposed Council, its methods of working, its constitution and questions relating to staffing and finance.

The objects and terms of reference of the Schools Council

19. We consider that the terms of reference of the Schools Council should include a statement of the objects for which it is to be set up, to which all members should subscribe. We propose the following text:

"The objects of the Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations are to uphold and interpret the principle that each school should have the fullest possible measure of responsibility for its own work, with its own curriculum and teaching methods based on the needs of its own pupils and evolved by its own staff: and to seek, through co-operative study of common problems, to assist all who have individual or joint responsibilities for, or in connection with, the schools' curricula and examinations to co-ordinate their actions in harmony with this principle.

In order to promote these objects, the Council will keep under review curricula, teaching methods and examinations in primary and secondary schools, including aspects of school organisation so far as they affect the curriculum, and will draw attention to difficulties arising in these fields which appear to merit consideration by other appropriate authorities.

In particular the Council will:

(a) discuss with the schools ways in which, through research and development and by other means, the Council can assist the schools to meet both the individual needs of their pupils, and the educational needs of the community as a whole;

(b) ascertain the views and interests of the schools on all matters falling within the Council's terms of reference, represent those views and interests in discussion of such matters with any bodies or persons concerned directly or indirectly with education in all its aspects; and will be free to publish its findings and recommendations at its own discretion;

(c) carry out all the functions hitherto undertaken by the Secondary School Examinations Council, and such other functions as the Minister, acting in his capacity as central co-ordinating authority for secondary schools examinations, may remit to the Council;

(d) offer advice on request to any member interest and, so far as practicable, to any other bodies and persons concerned with the work of the schools."


[page 13]

The methods of working of the Schools Council

20. We would expect the Council's normal method of working to be as follows:

(1) With the help of its own staff, the Council would undertake a preliminary study of any problem which it had decided to tackle.

(2) Where this preliminary study indicated the need for research or development work, the Council would formulate terms of reference for the projects, and decide who should be approached to carry them out.

(3) In the light of such studies, of research or development work, the Council would decide whether to publish the findings and, in particular, whether to recommend any changes in existing policies or practice. The action to be taken on any such recommendations would be the responsibility of the member interest concerned.

(4) In some cases, stage (1) might lead directly to stage (3).

21. The results of the Council's work should possess only their own inherent authority. This would ordinarily be high, since the Council's constitution and methods of working would be designed to ensure a rigorous, professional approach to all problems, and to produce recommendations which, within the limits of the practicable, had taken all relevant factors into account and were agreed by representatives of the member interests concerned. But they would still be recommendations, addressed to those who have their own areas of responsibility, and who must be free to take their own decisions. This is especially important in the case of recommendations addressed directly to the schools: the school is often a very small unit, with limited capacity to resist being persuaded against its own better judgement. In particular, the Council would neither publish, nor approve, anything in the nature of a text book.

22. This method of working would not, in our view, render any of the Council's work ineffective. On the contrary, we are recording our belief that if new ranges of choice are made available, the schools will freely select for themselves any approach to syllabus content or teaching methods which, with or without further local modification, clearly offers a better educational solution than that previously available. The need for a more rapid response on the part of the schools to changing educational needs is not in doubt. But there is no need to transfer responsibility to the centre in order to bring this about. The response will be freely made by the schools themselves once their room for manoeuvre has been increased, and once the teachers are enabled to play a bigger part in research, and in the development of new ranges of professional choice.

The Council's Constitution

23. The main constitutional problems are to secure an appropriate balance of interests within the Council, and to reconcile the representative principle (which leads inevitably to a large total membership), with the need to provide working units of the smaller size appropriate to the intensive study of professional problems.

24. We did not consider that the precise balance of interests within the Council need be regarded as of cardinal importance. The character of the body we propose is that of a free association of equal partners, retaining unimpaired their own rights of decision within their own areas of responsibility. It will seek to secure agreement by means of full and free discussion of differing points of view, and it is unlikely that Important decisions will be taken by counting votes.

25. At the same time, however, we felt that it would be appropriate for a body described as a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations to have a majority of members representing the schools,


[page 14]

and a substantial majority representing the schools together with other educational establishments. The detailed constitutional proposals which we put forward in the Appendices to this Report have therefore been formulated on this basis.

26. It will be noted, however, that the majority of teachers representing the schools depends upon the use by the Council of its powers of co-option. We recommend this arrangement in preference to a larger direct representation of the teachers' associations partly to secure that a number of teachers from the Council's executive arm should also be members of the policy organisation. (We discuss this organisational division in the following paragraphs). But the more important reason is that we wish the teachers' associations to have an entirely free choice of their own appointees. This freedom of choice is bound to result in some types of school, and some geographical areas of the country, being poorly represented on the Council, and the use of co-options will be a means of filling such gaps. We would emphasise, however, that the co-optative places are to be filled by the Council itself, and that it will be open to the Council to invite nominations from the teachers' associations once the gaps to be filled have been identified.

27. The more difficult problem is to reconcile representation and size. Our proposals, which are set out in diagrammatic form in Appendix A, therefore envisage a dual organisation, under which a fully representative policy organisation would control the work of an executive arm, having a mixed representative and individually selected professional membership.

28. In detail, we recommend that a fully representative Council, constituted as in Appendix B, should be supported by three representative Curriculum Steering Committees (Appendix C) concerned with three broad and overlapping divisions of the work of the schools and its testing by means of examinations. We attach great importance to the overlap in the responsibilities of the three Curriculum Steering Committees, since we are anxious to minimise the risk of Council policy being formulated in compartments: we wish to create a situation in which each Steering Committee will consider its work part of a larger whole, and so reduce to a minimum the number of occasions when the Council itself will feel bound to intervene to secure co-ordination of the work of its policy committees.

29. We also recommend that the Council's organisation should include a representative Welsh Committee (Appendix D), which would have power to initiate proposals in matters of specific concern to Wales, and which would act as a Curriculum Steering Committee in relation to the Welsh aspects of the Council's general work. We further recommend the establishment of a General Purposes Committee (Appendix E), which would act as a policy Steering Committee in connection with appointments, priorities in the use of the Council's study teams, and the commissioning of research and development work. In the following paragraphs, whenever we refer to the Council's Steering Committees we have in mind these two committees, as well as the Curriculum Steering Committees.

30. These committees, functioning under the authority of the full Council, would constitute the policy organisation and would control all the Council's work. In particular, no study would be put in hand until the relevant representative Curriculum Steering Committee had approved the terms of reference, and no findings or recommendations would be published without its approval.

31. The organisation of studies, when their terms of reference had been approved in the way just described, would be the task of a professional Co-ordinating Committee (Appendix F). This Committee would control and co-ordinate the work of the Council's executive organisation, comprising a mixture of standing and ad hoc committees concerned with particular curriculum problems, the central co-ordination of secondary school examinations in harmony with the developing curricular needs of the school (Appendices G and H), and individual subject courses (Appendix I). We have not included in this Report examples of particular curriculum committees within the executive


[page 15]

organisation, since we wish the Council to be free, once it has been set up, to take its own decisions on the number, terms of reference and constitution of these important bodies. But we have in mind that the Council might wish to establish, amongst others, a standing committee on the sixth form curriculum and an ad hoc committee to follow up a number of the recommendations in the Newsom Report.

32. The detailed constitutional suggestions which we make in Appendices F - I are similarly not to be regarded as limiting the Council's freedom of action, once it has been set up, to make such changes as it thinks desirable. The one point of principle which we would wish the Council to observe is that there should always be, except at the level of the individual subject committees, representation of the Council's policy organisation within the organs of its executive arm. We consider this essential in order to ensure continuing co-ordination of 'policy' and 'executive' thinking, and to reduce to a minimum (or, as we would hope, eliminate) the risk of work being referred back to the Co-ordinating Committee by the Council or its Steering Committees. As an additional safeguard against the risk of wasted effort within the Council's executive organisation, we recommend that the minutes of all meetings of the Co-ordinating Committee should invariably be placed before meetings of the relevant Steering Committees, and that any unresolved differences of view between the Co-ordinating Committee and a Steering Committee should be the subject of a joint reference to the full Council.

33. We believe that a dual organisation along these lines will secure full representative control of policy, together with executive units of manageable size for the intensive study of professional problems. It will also reduce to ten the number of individuals for whom membership of the Council would necessarily involve a heavy load of work; these will be the ten members of the Co-ordinating Committee who are also members of the Steering Committees.

34. We suggest, therefore, that these ten appointments to the Co-ordinating Committee should be made annually, though without prejudice to the right of the Council to extend the period of appointment if it wishes to do so and if the member concerned is willing to serve longer. For other appointments, we suggest that the period of service with the Council should be within the discretion of the appointing body or individual, though we express the hope that all concerned (including the Council itself, in relation to its own appointments) will agree that it is desirable to ensure regular renewal of part of the membership.

35. We also consider that after the Council has completed three years' work the member interests should exchange views on the success of the constitutional and other arrangements which we have recommended. This will provide an opportunity for considering, in the light of experience, the need for modifications or, indeed, for a radically different approach to the solution of the problems defined earlier in this report.

36. On this basis, we recommend that all initial appointments, other than the ten for which we have suggested special arrangements, should be for a maximum period of four years. This will enable the review of our recommendations to be completed within the terms of appointment of most founder members.

The Council's Staff

37. We recommend that the staff which the Council will need should be drawn from a variety of sources, but particularly from teachers in schools, further education, the universities, the local education authorities, Her Majesty's Inspectorate, and the Ministry of Education, and that the normal basis of service should be short term. We have in mind periods varying from one to five years according to


[page 16]

the nature of the particular post. We are clear that a career secretariat and study team organisation is not desirable: the Council's staff should consist of men and women with recent practical experience within the various branches of the education service who expect to return to such duties on completing their period of service with the Council.

38. The Minister would be responsible for the pay and conditions of service of the Council's staff, who would become temporary civil servants (if not already established) for the period of their service with the Council. The Council would, however, have full operational control of its own staff subject only to special arrangements needed to protect the professional independence of H.M. Inspectors.

39. We agree with the suggestion put to us by the Minister's representatives that one of the Council's secretaries should be, from the outset, appointed from the local education authority service. We would emphasise, however, that this suggestion was made, and has been accepted by us, purely on the basis that the local education authority service is a suitable source from which to draw a necessary additional secretary. We should be strongly opposed to any attempt to define proportions of staff to be drawn from particular sources: they should, in our view, be drawn from whatever source is appropriate to the work for which they are required.

40. Close co-operation between the Council, acting through the General Purposes Committee, and the Minister will be necessary over staffing matters. There must be arrangements for:

(1) Discussion of annual staffing estimates and, within the overall estimates, of the number of H.M.I.s and Ministry officials whom the Minister will make available.

(2) The appointment of staff other than Ministry officials and H.M.I.s (who would be made available to the Council on the Minister's nomination, after consultation with the Chairman of the Council).

Finance

41. We are glad to place on record our appreciation of the Minister's offer to meet the Council's staffing costs and other overheads, within an annual sum which he will determine after consultation with the Council.

42. We are equally appreciative of the Minister's offer to support from his Research Vote, within a budget to be negotiated annually, research and development work commissioned by the Council. We think it desirable that the Council should also draw on other sources of support for such work.

Timing

43. We hope that this Report will be published as soon as possible, and that its discussion will be completed in time to establish the Schools Council at the beginning of the 1964/65 academic year. Apart from the urgency of the need for new co-operative machinery, this would be the most convenient moment for a new body to assume the functions of the existing Secondary School Examinations Council.

Summary of principal conclusions and recommendations

44. Our main conclusions and recommendations are as follows:

(1) We re-affirm the importance of the principle that the schools should have the fullest possible measure of responsibility for their own work, including responsibility for their own curricula


[page 17]

and teaching methods, which should be evolved by their own staff to meet the needs of their own pupils. We believe, however, that positive action is needed to uphold this principle. (Paragraph 6).

(2) The present arrangements for determining the curriculum in schools and the related examinations are not working well: in particular teachers have insufficient scope for making or recommending modifications in the curriculum and examinations. (Paragraph 15(1)).

(3) Different arrangements are needed to achieve the balanced co-operation of the teachers, the Local Education Authorities, the Ministry of Education, establishments of higher and further education, and others, in a continuing process of modifying the curriculum and examinations. (Paragraph 15(2)).

(4) More resources and more effort should be devoted to co-operative study, research and development in the fields of curricula and examinations. (Paragraph 15(3)).

(5) We welcome the initiative of the Minister of Education in establishing within his Department a new unit, known as the Curriculum Study Group, to make possible the close and continuous full-time co-operative study of curriculum and examination problems by those possessing different forms of skill and experience. (Paragraph 16).

(6) We also welcome the Minister's subsequent proposal that the range of problems which are the concern of the Curriculum Study Group should be remitted to a body more fully representative of the education service as a whole, and that this body should be supported in its work by inter-disciplinary study teams on the model of the Curriculum Study Group. (Paragraph 16).

(7) We consider that control of the co-operative machinery should be vested in a body fully representative of all those principally concerned. (Paragraph 17(1)).

(8) The character of the new body should be that of a free association of equal partners who would combine to promote, through co-operative study of common problems, the pursuit of common objectives. (Paragraph 17(2)).

(9) The new body should have control of its own work and be free to select its own subjects of study, to publish its findings and recommendations, and should have full operational control of its own staff. (Paragraph 17(3)).

(10) The new body should be regarded as complementary, and not alternative, to the existing agencies for research and development. (Paragraph 17(4)).

(11) On the assumption that recommendations (7), (8), (9) and (10) are accepted by all concerned we recommend the establishment of a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations. (Paragraph 18).

(12) We consider that the terms of reference of the Schools Council should include a statement of the objects for which it is to be set up, to which all members should subscribe. We propose a text for such terms of reference. (Paragraph 19).

(13) We make recommendations on the methods of working of the Schools Council, designed to protect the freedom of the member interests to take decisions within their own areas of responsibility. (Paragraphs 20-22).

(14) We make outline proposals for the constitution of a Schools Council designed to reconcile the representative principle, which leads to a large total membership, with the need to provide working units of the smaller size appropriate to the intensive study of difficult professional problems. (Paragraphs 23-26, and the Appendices).


[page 18]

(15) We make recommendations about the Council's staff. (Paragraphs 37-40).

(16) We note with appreciation the financial arrangements proposed to us by the Minister of Education. (Paragraphs 41-42).

(17) We express the hope that our Report will be published as soon as possible, and that its discussion will be completed in time to establish the Schools Council at the beginning of the 1964/65 academic year.





[page 19]

APPENDIX A

Organisation Chart for a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations

Curriculum Steering Committee A: primarily, but not exclusively, questions in the age range 2-13.

Curriculum Steering Committee B: primarily, but not exclusively, questions in the age range 11-16.

Curriculum Steering Committee C: primarily, but not exclusively, questions in the age range 14+.


[page 20]

APPENDIX B

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A GOVERNING COUNCIL

Chairman

To be appointed by the Minister of Education,

Deputy Chairmen

The Chairmen of Curriculum Steering Committees A and B and of the Welsh Committee. (The Chairman of the Council would chair Curriculum Steering Committee C and the General Purposes Committee).

Members

Appointing bodyNo. of
appointments
National Union of Teachers10
Association of Head Masters1
Association of Head Mistresses1
Association of Assistant Masters2
Association of Assistant Mistresses2
Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions2
National Association of Schoolmasters2
National Association of Head Teachers2
Headmasters' Conference1
Incorporated Association of Preparatory Schools1
County Councils Association2
Association of Municipal Corporations2
London County Council1
Association of Education Committees2
Welsh Joint Education Committee2
Association of Chief Education Officers1
Church of England Board of Education Schools Council1
Catholic Education Council1
Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals of the Universities of the United Kingdom4


[page 21]

Appointing bodyNo. of
appointments
Committee of Principals off Colleges of Advanced Technology1
Association of Principals of Technical Institutions2
Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education2
Conference of Heads of University Departments of Education, jointly with Conference of Institute Directors3
Minister of Education4
The Council (co-optative)14

Notes

(1) If all 14 co-optative appointments are made, 10 must be practising teachers to ensure a majority of teachers representing the schools. There would then be 34 teacher members out of a total membership of 66 (excluding the Chairman).

(2) Appointing bodies should ensure that at least two of the teacher members of the Council are drawn from schools in Wales.

(3) Appointing bodies should be authorised to nominate alternate members, particularly where bodies with only one or two members on the Governing Council have to provide committee members.

(4) The Council should be free to invite any member of its Steering Committees, or of its Co-ordinating Committee, who is not a member of the Governing Council to attend Council meetings in a non-voting capacity.




[page 22]

APPENDIX C

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR THE CURRICULUM STEERING COMMITTEES

Curriculum Steering Committee A

Chairman

To be appointed by the Steering Committee from amongst those of its members who are members of the Governing Council.

Members appointed by the Governing Council (full members or alternates)

Nominating interestNo. of
members
Teachers' Associations (1)12
Local authority associations3
Teachers' training colleges1
Institutes and Departments of Education1
Minister of Education
    Her Majesty's Inspectorate1
    Ministry of Education1

Co-options

Up to six.

Notes

(1) See Appendix J.

(2) If all six co-optative appointments are made, one at least must be a practising teacher to ensure a majority of teachers representing the schools. There would then be 13 teacher members out of a total membership of 25 (including the Chairman).

(3) Appointing bodies should ensure that at least one teacher member of the Committee is drawn from a school in Wales.

(4) The Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees for steering particular studies or projects, and to co-opt to their membership.


[page 23]

Curriculum Steering Committee B

Chairman

As for Committee A.

Members appointed by the Governing Council (full members or alternates)

Nominating interestNo. of
members
Teachers' Associations (1)14
Local authority associations3
Universities1
Further education1
Teachers' training colleges1
Institutes and Departments of Education1
Minister of Education
    Her Majesty's Inspectorate1
    Ministry of Education1

Member to be appointed by the Chairman of the Council

Representative of commerce or industry1

Co-options

Up to 4.

Notes

(1) See Appendix J.

(2) If all four co-optative appointments are made, one at least must be a practising teacher to ensure a majority of teachers representing the schools. There would then be 15 teacher members out of a total membership of 28 (including the Chairman).

(3) As for Committee A.

(4) As for Committee A.


[page 24]

Curriculum Steering Committee C

Chairman

The Chairman of the Council.

Members appointed by the Governing Council (full members or alternates)

Nominating interestNo. of
members
Teachers' Associations (1)13
Local authority associations3
Universities3
Further education1
Teachers' training colleges1
Institutes and Departments of Education1
Minister of Education
    Her Majesty's Inspectorate1
    Ministry of Education1

Members to be appointed by the Chairman of the Council

Representative of commerce or industry1

Co-options

Up to five.

Notes

(1) See Appendix J.

(2) If all five co-optative appointments are made, at least three must be practising teachers to ensure a majority of teachers representing the schools. There would then be 16 teacher members out of a total membership of 30 (excluding the Chairman).

(3) As for Committee A.

(4) As for Committee A.


[page 25]

APPENDIX D

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A WELSH COMMITTEE

Chairman

To be appointed by the Chairman of the Council, after consultation with the Welsh members of the Governing Council: to be co-opted to the Governing Council if not already a member.

Members appointed by the Governing Council (full members or alternates)

Nominating interestNo. of
members
Teachers' Associations (1)7
Welsh Joint Education Committee2
Teachers' training colleges1
Institutes and Departments of Education1
Minister of Education
    Her Majesty's Inspectorate1
    Ministry of Education1

Co-options

Up to 3.

Notes

(1) See Appendix J.

(2) Two at least of the co-optative members must be teachers to ensure a majority of teachers representing the schools.

(3) It is contemplated that the teacher members of the Committee would include the teacher representatives from Wales serving on Curriculum Steering Committees A, B and C.

(4) The Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees, and to co-opt to their membership.


[page 26]

APPENDIX E

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE

Chairman

The Chairman of the Council.

Members appointed by the Governing Council (full members or alternates)

Nominating interestNo. of
members
Teachers' associations (1)2
Local authority associations2
Institutes and Departments of Education1
Minister of Education2

Notes

(1) See Appendix J.

(2) The Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees, and to co-opt to their membership, particularly when acting as an appointments committee.




[page 27]

APPENDIX F

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE

Chairman

To be appointed by the Chairman of the Council, and to be co-opted to membership of the Governing Council if not already a member.

Members drawn from the Steering Committees

10 to be appointed from amongst their own professional members by Steering Committees A, B and C (three members each) and by the Welsh Committee (one member).

Other members

10 to be appointed initially by the Chairman of the Council from 15 nominations submitted by the 10 Steering Committee members, and thereafter by co-option.

Assessors

To be appointed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate.

Notes

(1) Appointing bodies or individuals should ensure that the Co-ordinating Committee contains members drawn from the following spheres of work:

The schools, including both primary and secondary schools, and both Heads of schools and assistant masters and mistresses.
The subject Committees.
The local education service.
The universities (including at least one member from an Institute or Department of Education).
Other forms of higher and further education.
The Ministry of Education.
(2) The Co-ordinating Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees, and to co-opt to their membership, subject to the right of the relevant Steering Committee or Committees jointly to nominate one third of the total membership.



[page 28]

APPENDIX G

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMITTEE

Chairman

To be appointed by the Committee from amongst those of its members who are in membership of the Governing Council, or of Steering Committee B.

Steering Committee members

3 to be appointed by Steering Committee B.
1 to be appointed by Steering Committee C.
1 to be appointed by the Welsh Committee.

Other members

9 to be appointed by the Co-ordinating Committee.

Co-options

Up to 4.

Assessors

To be appointed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate.

Notes

(1) Appointing bodies should ensure that the membership is drawn from the following spheres of work:

The schools using the C.S.E. examinations, including both Heads of schools and assistant masters and mistresses.
The subject Committees.
The local education service.
The universities (including at least one member from an Institute or Department of Education).
Other forms of higher and further education.
Commerce or industry.
The C.S.E. examining boards.
The Ministry of Education.
(2) The C.S.E. Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees, and to co-opt to their membership, subject to right of Steering Committees B and C and of the Welsh Committee, to appoint jointly one third of the total membership.


[page 29]

APPENDIX H

OUTLlNE CONSTITUTION FOR A GENERAL CERTIF1CATE OF EDUCATION COMMITTEE

Chairman

To be appointed by the Committee from amongst those of its members who are in membership of the Governing Council, or of Steering Committee C.

Steering Committee members

3 to be appointed by Steering Committee C.
1 to be appointed by Steering Committee B.
1 to be appointed by the Welsh Committee.

Other members

9 to be appointed by the Co-ordinating Committee.

Co-options

Up to 4.

Assessors

To be appointed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate.

Notes

(1) Appointing bodies should ensure that the membership is drawn from the following spheres of work:

The schools using the G.C.E. examinations, including both Heads of schools and assistant masters and mistresses.
The subject Committees.
The local education service.
The universities (including at least one member from an Institute or Department of Education).
Other forms of higher and further education.
Commerce or industry.
The G.C.E. examining boards.
The Ministry of Education.
(2) The G.C.E. Committee should have power to constitute sub-committees, and to co-opt to their membership, subject to the right of Steering Committees B and C, and of the Welsh Committee, to appoint jointly one third of the total membership.


[page 30]

APPENDIX I

OUTLINE CONSTITUTION FOR A SUBJECT COMMITTEE

Chairman

A leading practitioner of the subject, to be appointed by the Chairman of the Council on the advice of the Co-ordinating Committee.

Members, to be appointed by the Co-ordinating Committee

6 practising school teachers of the subject.
2 university teachers of the subject.
1 headmaster and/or 1 headmistress.
1 representative of the relevant learned society or subject association;

Co-options

One or two.

Assessors

To be appointed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate.

NOTE:

This Appendix provides only a general indication of the form a subject committee might take. Variations will be needed according to the nature of the subject.




[page 31]

APPENDIX J

REPRESENTATION OF TEACHERS ON THE CURRICULUM STEERING COMMITTEES, THE WELSH COMMITTEE AND THE GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE

(1) The members of the working party representing the Teachers' Associations met under the Chairmanship of Sir John Lockwood on 11th February, 1964. On the assumption that a Schools Council for the Curriculum and Examinations would be established along the lines recommended in this report, the meeting agreed the following basis upon which the Teachers' Associations would nominate members of the Curriculum Steering Committees, the Welsh Committee and of the General Purposes Committee.

(2) The agreement reached at the meeting was reported to the Working Party, who agreed that it should be recorded in their Report.


[page 32]



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